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Agroforum 2003 April

FIELD CROPS

A method for making the list of recommended sunflower varieties (II.)
(Dr. Lajkó László)
The first part of this article was published in the November issue of Agrofórum in 2002. Preparation of a planned list of recommended varieties needs, in addition to have an overall view of each hybrid, a knowledge on several years’ performance, crop quality and quantity, as well as cropping safety of the particular hybrids in the different production sites and agronomic conditions. The present communication gives an account of the yields of the earlier selected two hybrids based on the data of three seasons in four counties.

Weed control in spring barley
(Balázs Gyulai, József Pardi)
In Hungary the majority of spring barley is used for brewing. Brewing industry prefers lower protein and higher starch content. However, in spring barley grown for feeding, higher protein level is preferred. The article discusses weed infestation in spring barley based on the experience obtained in county Fejér (mid-western Hungary), lists major weeds and gives information on chemical weed control. The herbicides registered in the crop are tabulated.

„History living with us”: Canada thistle (3) Experience of weed control trials in cereals
(Gabriella Benécs-Bárdi, Ferenc Hartmann, László Szabó)
The authors wrote about the biology and the possibilities of integrated control of Canada thistle in the issues 4 and 5 of Agrofórum in 2002. In their present article they summarise the results of herbicide trials carried out in cereals against thistle by the county plant protection and soil conservation services in 2001 and 2002. They itemize the lessons learned from the trials. Efficacy data of the tested herbicides are published in a plain table.

Dangerous pests (I/2.) Oulema leaf beetles
(Dr. János Szabolcs, Dr. Géza Vörös, István Bakonyi)
The present member of the series of articles summarises the required information on the generally spread and known pests. After dealing with the taxonomy and the geographic distribution, it gives a detailed discussion of the morphology and biology of the species. Information on forecasting has importance for the practice. In the part focusing on control options, the authors first outline agronomic methods, then take the role of natural enemies and biological control. The various insecticides available for chemical control are summarised in a table. Colour photos show the pests and the caused damage.

Possibilities for cultural control of Western corn rootworm
(F. Baèa F., Ž. Videnoviè, P. Erski, R. Stankovi, D. Dobrikoviè)

Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and its control may bring about a change in maize management programmes. The Yugoslav authors established a trial to find the answer to the question whether larval damage can be prevented or reduced by combining the varieties of different maturity groups (early and late-season) and various sowing times (early, common and late). The results obtained up to now show that in the described way – management completed with chemical treatments – maize can be grown without significant losses in the same field for not more than three years.

Seen, heard, read. Meeting for sunflower growers. Report
(Zsuzsanna Bagdán-Dörögdy)
The report summarises growers’ most important experience, as well as variety owners’ and pesticide manufacturers’ recommendations delivered on a sunflower production meeting organised by Szekszárdi Növényvédõ Ltd. (Szekszárd Plant Protection Ltd.).

Fungicide treatments in droughty years (x)
(Dr. Aurél Kádár)
Bumper (propiconazole), Bumper Super (prochloraz + propiconazole) and Poly-Feed foliar fertilizer distributed by Biomark Ltd. are recommended for use in wheat growing.

HORTICULTURAL CROPS

Fruit growing in the enlarging European Union
(Dr. Erzsébet Kristóf)
Last October Dutch experts organised a conference in Prague involving four central-European countries – Poland, Czech Republic, Slovenia and Hungary – and focusing on the situation analysis of vegetable and fruit growing of the above countries. This article shows fruit growing in these countries. It deals with their production data, farm structure and the issues of market and marketing. As a general conclusion, market orientation of growing is not satisfactory in any of the post-socialist countries. Their further common concerns are subdivided farm structure and the lack of such essential elements of successful commercial growing as applied research, well-organised information network and advisory service, furthermore well-operated growers’ organisations.

Fruit Logistica 2003 – Vegetable and Fruit Fair for professionals in Berlin. Report
(Dr. Erzsébet Kristóf)
This January, one of the most outstanding world expos of the vegetable and fruit industry, “Fruit Logistica” was organised for the 11th time in Berlin. The leading idea of this year’s fair was that vegetable and fruit consumption is a major element of modern and healthy alimentation; furthermore that product quality shall be preserved during the whole chain of trading that is facilitated by logistics. It is a good thing that Hungary was represented by 12 exhibitors, however, rather poor in ideas and fancy.

About fertilizer application and Magmix fertilizers (x)
(Dr. István Csölle)
It shows the advantages of using this fertilizer group based on trials with them in apples and tobacco.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Study. Insect growth regulators: IGR-compounds
(Dr. Attila Tóth)
Insect growth regulators gain more and more importance in the current plant protection practice. Based on extensive entomological research, the ever-higher requirements of environmentally friendly plant protection and consumer safety have led to the development of such active substances. In order to understand the mode of action of the related compounds, the author cannot pass over summarising theoretical bases, i.e. neurohormonal background of insect moulting. By now several insect growth regulators have been released belonging to the following compound groups: chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone analogues, ecdysone-agonists, pyridine and thiadiazine type insect growth regulators. The author gives account of their mode of action and the possibilities of their use in practice. He summarises the products registered in Hungary in a table.

Made of wine … (1.). Sparkling wine
(Dr. György Pásti)
In the wide range of alcoholic drinks there are a few ones that can be linked to wine without doubt, and are still not wine. At the same time, the preparation of some of them is wrapped in mystery, or rather there are various misunderstandings and misbelieves around them in the general public.

The reason why they can be arranged in one group is very simple. Though sparkling wines, distilled wines, dessert wines and vermouths have completely different character, their basic material is the many-sided wine, or in certain cases, such as grape skin brandy, it is a by-product of winemaking. The first article summarises the necessary information on sparkling wine. It presents the drink fermented in a classical way in bottles and a newer one in tanks and discusses the key elements of their production. Finally, after giving an account of the traditions of their consumption, it touches tasting rules and the rudiments of their evaluation.

Seen, heard, read. Bacterium fertilizers with increasing importance
(Zoltán Nagy)
The use of bacterium fertilizers is justified by the fact that already 23 products based on bacterial activity have been registered for distribution in Hungary. One of them is “Mikro-vital” bacterium fertilizer distributed by Bio-Nat Ltd. The timeliness of its introduction here is given by the fact that the company, as the sixth to do it in the country, has opened its cooling centre at Csorna for growers of counties Gyõr-Moson-Sopron and Vas. As a bacterium fertilizer is a living material, it will be effective at the place of application only if it is handled with a continuous care till the date of using. It basically means cooling as their activity stops between 0 and +40C and simultaneous stir which can be best done in milk-coolers. Now there is an increasing trend in the use of bacterium fertilizers throughout Europe, they are generally applied in 2-4 % of the arable land of the particular countries.

Seen, heard, read. Versatile Amalgerol. Report
(Béla Klopp)
It reports on the meeting on the plant strengthener Amalgerol, where growers discussed their favourable experience with its use.

23 years in plant protection. Interview with Péter Lantos
(Dr. István Csíbor)
Through the interview with the retired Péter Lantos, the former director of Aventis CropScience, readers may get acquainted with his successful plant protection career and that he has taken part in the establishment and management of a non-profit company focusing on the handling of pesticide containers.

Integrated production is still a current issue
(Dr. Erzsébet Kristóf)
The author reports on a recent national conference titled “Integrated production in horticulture” organised by the Hungarian Vegetable and Fruit Production Board. The aim of the meeting was to draw the attention of professionals to the importance of the national agro-environment programme and within it, integrated production. The topic is timely on the approach of Hungary’s EU accession also for the fact that the Community’s agricultural policy changed in the early ‘90s, and growers can get subsidies by submitting project proposals for environmental and rural development programmes rather than directly from agricultural funds. This measure launched and has speeded up integrated horticultural production, too. By the middle of the ‘90s, in 40-50% of the fruit growing area on the average of the West-European countries, and on some 50% of the vegetable growing area in Germany, Switzerland and Sweden growers have shifted to integrated production. The European countries worked out general guidelines based on their several years’ practical experience that are worth considering in Hungary, too.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

John Deere, again in the limelight. International journalist meeting in the European factory of John Deere, in Zweibrücken
(Dr. György Demes)
The John Deere company regularly organises shows for journalists from all over the world in order to inform them on the reliability, excellent quality and outstanding performance of John Deere machines. Some 48 professional journalists from nine countries took part on the recent exhibition held on 29 January 2003. Organized by KITE Co, a few journalists of the Hungarian professional papers also had the opportunity to participate in the event. This report was made on what was seen and heard on the show. It briefly presents John Deere as a firm of worldwide reputation and, as usually, calls Readers’ attention to the novelties. Colour photos complete the article.

Under the magnifying glass …(18) Bed-system of potato growing using GRIMME machines
(Dr. Sándor Soós, Dr. József Füzy)
Nowadays large-scale potato growing gains more and more importance. It calls for working out a new machinery system for the sector, as well as finding the necessary machines and the testing of their technical performance and suitability for application. The aims are to develop a management programme for potato growing to allow coming close to the yields reached in the developed potato producing countries in Western Europe and to establish machinery for commercial growing of quality-potatoes in high volume.

It is why GRIMME machines designed for bed-system of potato growing were tested. The article gives a description of and informs on the testing of machines, such as Bedforma ridge preparator, Combi Star CS 1500 seedbed preparator, GL 32B planter and SE 170-60 UB potato harvester.

Operation costs of agricultural machines in 2003
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
In order to increase profitability of production, growers should know the operation costs of the particular machine models with various outputs, belonging to different branch-work, diverse execution and origin to be able to choose the economically best one. The Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering (FVMMI) monitors performance and operation costs of the machines in the so-called “basic-farms”, and annually prepares a cost forecasting, using such data and the results of machine testing. The article gives an account in a tabulated form of operation costs of the major power machines and implements, as well as of the costs totalled for the operation based on the publication „Operation costs of agricultural machines in 2003”. Being aware of the costs, calculations can be made for service fees, as well as planning and controlling the costs of the own machines.

Seen, heard, read. Axiál in Lajosmizse. Report
(Dr. György Demes)
This report is on the agricultural machine show organised by Axiál Ltd. every spring.

Perenal – and its underground activity in controlling grasses (x)
(István Szabó)
The author recommends the haloxyfop–R–methyl ester herbicide for the control of grasses.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)