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Agroforum 2003 June

TOWARDS THE EU

Effects to be expected from the EU accession on agriculture, machinery and costs of operating the machinery
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
Hungary will become a member state of the EU in 2004, therefore in the remaining time the consequences of the accession shall be considered. Growers need to be prepared for the foreseen changes so that those would not be a surprise for them. The author tries presenting the expected effects of the EU accession in agriculture. The introduction informs on the overall situation of Hungarian agriculture and machinery. It is followed by taking into account the likely changes in agriculture, and in particular, production costs. Considering the possible alternatives of agricultural development, the author outlines the options of rapid solution, slow “development” and medium-speed way. He gives a detailed analysis of the effects of joining the EU on the conditions of agricultural production. Hungarian agriculture needs a considerable development, also due to the accession. A major (probably the most important) field of development is mechanisation, it is impossible to produce successfully without appropriate machines. If in the near future we do not succeed in reaching a reasonable level in agriculture, our competitiveness will substantially decrease compared to the western agro-products. It will lead to a further decrease in Hungarian production and being so, western commodities will gain much higher market share in our country.

Changes in plant health regulations in the mirror of the EU accession
(Károly Kalmár)
The EU accession involves significant changes also in plant health regulations. The Ministerial Decree 37/2003. (IV. 4.) FVM on the amendment of the former decree 7/2001. (I. 17.) FVM on the rules of the implementation of phytosanitary tasks was published in April to allow complete legal harmonisation. A part of the amendments has entered into force already after the publication, while the majority of them shall be applied only on the accession. It will be important for every grower to know them, as the system of phytosanitary inspections will change upon accession. The article deals with the issues of quarantine pests, discusses the meaning and characteristics of the protected zone as a new element in regulations. The author gives a detailed account of the new parts of the plant health control (record keeping system, plant passport, etc), as well as of the conditions of compensation.

WHEAT GROWING

The leading crop of Hungarian agriculture is wheat. Successes and failures in wheat growing influence the whole agriculture. Under this heading the authors consider the effect of the new conditions provided by the forthcoming EU accession on wheat growing and wheat market. The situation is special and unique as Hungarian growers will sow wheat in autumn 2003 to harvest and market it in 2004 as an EU member state.

In his article titled Help! Help! Wheat!, Zoltán Nagy wishes to give an overview of the whole wheat growing at present with an outlook to the future. He states „Wheat for human consumption is a traditional Hungarian product that can surpass, at any time, the typical Euro-quality produced in the Western-European countries.” He is convinced that if quality is given, market is also ensured and that the secret of success is consequence. Finally he analyses the prospects of marketing and getting on the market.

In his article titled “Growing wheat in Europe, for Europe”, dr. László Bódis, the deputy general director of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI), informs Readers on the subsidies available for cereal growers and the intervention buy-up prices. The changes in variety use mean that, from 2004, each variety listed in the Common Catalogue of the EU can be grown also in Hungary. Hungarian varieties will have to face a fierce competition. Therefore it would be important to prepare a list of recommended varieties as soon as possible to provide growers with more substantial information.

In the first part of his article “Drought or intervention – hopefully, market will also have a chance”, György Makay, the secretary of Cereal Federation focuses on the difficulties of the so-called transitional season then considers the prospects for wheat exports.

Wheat growers’ opinion…

Péter Miskucza (Ménesbirtok Co. Mezőhegyes) answers to the question asked by Agrofórum. Among them, his thoughts about future requirements for growers especially worth mentioning: „They shall sow high-quality, certified seeds and try fulfilling conditions laid down in the regulations so that they can have access to all kinds of available subsidies. Hungarian farmers have not forgotten about production, they only suffer an extreme shortage of capital. In addition, record keeping and other paperwork required in the EU are not their strength. This shall be improved by all means.”

József Sziládi (Agrár Co. Enying) gives us an insight in the activity of a seed growing company. At present the biggest problem in seed production is that variety to be grown shall be chosen during the purchase of the elite seeds, two years before marketing the crop. Growers do not always accept varieties giving crops of high quality and quantity under Hungarian conditions. In our opinion buyers’ variety choice is still based on the marketing of fashionable varieties.”

 

PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF FIELD CROPS

Dangerous pests (I/3) Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata)
(Dr. Gyula Sáringer, Dr. Árpád Szentesi, Dr. Tibor Jermy)
The third part of the series of articles deals with one of the most well-spread and known insect pest. The authors give a detailed description of the history of Colorado beetle and the main steps of its introduction into Europe and Hungary. After its taxonomy and morphological traits, biology and in particular behaviour, diapause and host plant choice are discussed. Among issues of control, the article outlines the limited possibilities for forecasting, cultural operations supporting the control and efforts made in the field of biological control, using natural enemies. The latter ones have not been widely used in practice. Products registered for chemical control of the pest are summarised in a table. Colour photos and the list of the most important Hungarian references complete the article.

The trichlorfon case with Colorado beetle, or the true story of an insecticide
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)
The article calls the attention to the fact that application of a pesticide (or its active substance) at a rate lower than the recommended one may lead to the gradual decrease of efficacy, build-up of resistance in the pest, and finally to the end of the career of the product.

GrowHow service for growers (x)
The many-sided technical and commercial services provided by the Kemira Company are presented.

Control of sunflower pests
(Dr. Kálmán Szeőke)
Diseases have a decisive role in sunflower growing, though the importance of animal pests cannot be underestimated either. Their outbreak, the caused damage are highly influenced by meteorological conditions. Weather in 2003, so dry till now, has especially favoured to insect pests infesting the crop at early stages. The article discusses the importance of soil pests, weevils attacking after crop emergence, that of aphids and bugs, as well as their damages and possibilities for their control.

Rape desiccation
(Dr. József Karamán)
Harvesting of rapes may involve high risk and heavy losses if we do not prepare for it in the right way and in due time. It especially refers to this year when quite a lot of rape fields had to be ploughed out due to the hard winter. In the remained fields desiccation before harvesting needs to be carried out with special attention and care. The article briefly presents weeds the population of which aggressively increases in rapes by the time of harvesting, and takes viewpoints of desiccation (meteorological factors, selection of machinery, maturity level of rape, etc.) into consideration. The author gives detailed information on the chemicals registered for desiccation and conditions of their use.

SFERA – for sunflower’s health (x)
(Dr. Péter Bosák)
Information on the use of the fungicide containing trifloxistrobin + cyproconazole for the control of sunflower diseases.

Nutrient supply for sugarbeet in the light of physiology (x)
(István Tamás)
The benefits of applying Wuxal foliar fertilizers, as well as the fungicides Cuproxat FW (copper-sulphate), a Cosavet DF (sulphur) and Eminent 125 SL (tetraconazole) distributed by Hungarian Kwizda Ltd. are outlined.

 

PROTECTION OF FRUIT CROPS

Frost-protection “candles” in stone-fruits
(Beáta Horváth)
Balaton Fruit Ltd. at Balatonvilágos grows stone-fruits on 45 hectares, of which almost 40 hectares are planted with apricot. In the past few years the company have successfully fought cold weather, providing appropriate crop safety against frost damage during and after flowering. Several methods of frost control are known, the article informs on the use the so-called paraffin-candles, a technique less frequently applied up to now. Paraffin in 5.5 litre containers, ensures burning with the different adjuvants for 10-12 hours. The burning candles warm up air even at minus 7-8 ºC when the majority of the other methods are not effective.

Protecting orchards. Report.
(Zoltán Molnár)
Szekszárd Plant Protection Ltd. organised a round-table discussion titled Plant Protection in orchards on 24 April in Agárd. Among the opinions, the report emphasizes what was told about the protection of sour cherry and apricots. The core of pest management in sour cherry continues to be the control of Monilia. In addition to Monilia, leaf scorch of apricot is the key point of apricot growing. The general conditions of crop production give cause for alarm. Among them, the theoretical bases and practice of pruning should be re-evaluated due to the extremely poor plant health status of orchards.

MECHANISATION AND APPLICATION TECHNIQUE

Machine delivery event in Nagykanizsa at “Gyümölcsöskert” (“Orchard”) Co. Report
(Dr. György Demes)
IKR Co. delivered 13 New Holland tractors (1 TN95 F for orchards, 11 TL 90 universal tractors and 1 8870A model for field use), as well as a CX 760 combine to “Gyümölcsöskert” Co, Nagykanizsa on 24 April 2003. The event was of special importance because so many machines are seldom bought “in a single package”.

After the ceremony, Agrofórum interviewed the leaders of the companies “Gyümölcsöskert” and IKR.

Structure of plant protection machines (1)
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
In his series of articles on the structure of plant protection machines launched in this number, the author presents the most important parts of sprayers from the spray tank to nozzles. In the first part he gives an account on the tank and its accessories, agitators, chemical injector, clean water and hand-wash tanks, suction filter and the different kinds of pumps. Colour pictures complete the article.

Under the magnifying glass …(21.) Grégoire Besson SPB9 reversible plough
(Dr. Sándor Soós)
The Grégoire Besson SPB9 reversible plough is suitable for ploughing soils of different mechanical composition without making dead furrows or ridges. The semi-mounted plough consists of two main parts: the frame and the plough bodies. After giving the technical characteristics of the machine, the author informs on the conditions and results of testing. The plough equipped with ploughshares with different mouldboards was examined in cereal stubble, during medium-deep ploughing and deep ploughing in chopped maize stubble. The article informs on the results of testing output, working quality, energertic and operation characteristics. Finally, Readers may get recommendations for operating the machine.

 

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION

The fate of pesticide packaging material in France
(Dr. János Káldy)
The Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Fejér hosted the meeting of the Agrochemical Society of the Hungarian Association of Agricultural Sciences and certain invited officials and specialist from the administration, research and agricultural educational at its headquarters in Velence in the middle of April. The lecturers discussed the issues of Hungarian pesticide use and food safety, with special attention to the forthcoming EU accession.

Thoughts about the use of agrochemicals in Hungary. Report
(Zoltán Molnár)
The article based on French literature data and experience shows the efforts made in France, the EU member state with the most important agriculture, to solve the problem of collecting contaminated pesticide packaging materials and their further handling. It informs on the related French regulations, on the operation of the collecting organisations, as well as on the experience and lessons learned up to now from such waste material collection.

 

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Programme of the 8th Crop Production Days of the Great Plain at Mezőhegyes
The outstanding agricultural event of South-eastern Hungary has two main topics this year: wheat growing and mechanisation issues.

Federation of Agronomists graduated at the Mosonmagyaróvár University
(Gyula Kettinger)
The management of the faculty has recently initiated to create the Federation of Agronomists graduated at the Mosonmagyaróvár University in order to establish still closer links among the former students, as well as to maintain and improve recognition of the university. It was well-based by the successful, 185-year-history of the university and the lot of agronomists graduated there and having been engaged with the profession up to now. The article reports on this event.

Written anno
(Dr. Inczédy Péter)