Agroforum 2003 May
TOWARDS THE EU
Agrochemicals and food safety
(Dr. Ottó Pálmai)
Under the present conditions of production we cannot afford to avoid using chemicals, among them pesticides and fertilizers. At the same time, it means that up-to-date food safety conditions cannot do without working out the principles of and implementing good agricultural practice (GAP). It is an urgent task to perform. The article gives a brief summary of the contradiction between intensive production and the concomitant overproduction, and the sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural production. The author deals with the role of fertilizers and pesticides, the institutional background of food safety, and finally outlines what needs doing urgently here.
Thoughts before accessing the EU about the lists of recommended varieties
(Dr. László Lajkó)
The value of varieties will be raised in Hungary in the near future. The enlargement of the European Union will involve legal disappearance of national frontiers regarding plant varieties. Preparation and publication of recommended lists of varieties by independent organisations is a common practice in the EU, as they provide the most comprehensive information in connection with the selection of varieties for growers. Choosing the varieties, taking natural, agronomic and market conditions of the country into consideration, needs to be assisted also in Hungary as a future member state. The recommended lists of varieties must be prepared also in our country in the next few years. However, such list can play its important part well only if, the related ministry, the Agricultural Chamber and the plant product boards, as well as the participants of economic life jointly do their best for the establishment and efficient management of the system.
FIELD CROP PROTECTION
Western corn rootworm in spring, 2003
(Dr. József Kiss, Dr. Géza Ripka, Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
Last summer growers in certain southern counties were shocked by the larval damage of Western corn rootworm (WCR), plant lodging observed at several places, the scenery of fields resembling to game devastation. The article offers an overview of the current situation before the damages and management of the pest in the season. The authors address the following topics: WCR infestation and damages in Hungary; outlook to the European distribution; recent knowledge on the biology and host range of the pest; possibilities for controlling larvae in spring and adults in summer. Finally, they outline training and cooperation programmes planned to be implemented involving growers.
A time-tested adjuvant: BIO-FILM (x)
It summarises the experience of growers and users on the advantages of the spray adjuvant Bio- Film.
Relationship between weed control and soil disinfestation in maize (x)
The article outlines the benefits of using the carbosulfan soil-insecticide if sulfonylurea herbicides are applied for post-emergence weed control in maize.
Canada thistle, ragweed, cocklebur –the solution is LONTREL* (x)
The clopyralid herbicide Lontrel can be efficiently applied for the control of theses weeds.
PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF GRAPES
Study. Grapevine decline, „esca” disease
The comprehensive paper deals with the global problem of grapevine growers: early decline. The first part of the study summarises general information on the related diseases. After reviewing theoretical bases, the author discusses the decline of young plants then early decline of bearing vineyards. It is followed by summarising limited possibilities of control. The second part of the article gives an account of the diseases based on practical examples taken from two important wine-growing districts (Eger and the foot of Mátra hills), considers the causes, the importance of infected propagating material and the urgent tasks to be done. Several colour photos complete the study.
„Esca” disease in the wine-growing region of Balatonboglár (2000-2002)
(Andrea Rábai, Szilveszter Morvai, László Vukovich, Szabolcs Makó, Dr. János Lázár, Dr. József Mikulás)
This article is related to the previous one. It gives an account of grapevine decline (esca disease) observed in the wine-growing region of Balatonboglár, based on the surveys and studies conducted in the past three years.
Criteria for selecting fungicides to control grapevine diseases
The article gives an overview of the three major grapevine diseases: downy mildew, powdery mildew and grey mould and the key points of their control. It briefly deals with the symptoms of the diseases and biology of the pathogens, finally, discusses the principles of their management and the most important fungicides to be used.
Results of vineyard registry in county Bács-Kiskun in 2001
The establishment of the vineyard registry has been mandatory in the EU member states since 1962. At the beginning, only the most essential data for the regulation of the common wine market had to be collected. However, since 1979 the overall survey of vineyards must be made every ten years in each member state. In Hungary the Government Decision 2198/1998 (IX. 9.) provided for the mandatory data recording of the Hungarian orchards and vineyards till the date of our accession to the European Union, and based on it, a registry in compliance with EU standards shall be established. The article summarises the data for county Bács-Kiskun. The registry of the vineyards and the evaluation of data from various aspects contribute to planning and organising production related to these vineyards, market flexibility and sales. In addition, they serve as a basis for long-term strategic decisions and call the attention to relationships at national level.
Agriculture and operation of machinery
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
The future of Hungarian agriculture depends on whether we can be duly cost-efficient and will be able to improve productivity or not. As in 2004 Hungary will likely be a member of the European Union, we have to meet EU requirements and enter into competition with the members states of longer history in the Community, whose agriculture will receive almost twice as much compensation support in the future, too than the currently accessing countries. However, we will be able to hold on in the competition only if our production costs are lower than their ones in spite of the less support. Depending on the circumstances, operation of machinery accounts for about 30-70% of agricultural production costs, which is a remarkable share. Unfortunately, production has considerably decreased in the past 10-15 years due to the changes occurred in agriculture, while costs have conspicuously increased. One of its main causes, says the author, is the too small farm size. He believes that the way of reducing production costs is to form larger farming units, consolidating and integrating land-strips. He supports his opinion with a lot of statistical data and comprehensive tables.
Operation of plant protection machines
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
In the former issues of Agrofórum, the author dealt with preparing plant protection machines for the season and their adjustment. Now he gives detailed information on the operation of such machines. He emphasizes that unsuccessful, bad work can be done even with a well-adjusted sprayer possessing up-to-date technical parameters, if the basic rules of operation are neglected. Certain characteristics of the machine need to be known for professional working quality. In this respect, the most important one is the spraying pattern and the related knowledge. The author separately discusses operation of field crop and orchard sprayers.
Under the magnifying glass …(20) OÁB-3.2 rotary harrow
(Dr. Sándor Soós)
The mounted rotary harrow OÁB-3.2, manufactured by OMIKRON Ltd. of Kecskemét, can be successfully used for preparing soils of different mechanical composition, as well as for the incorporation of fertilizers and pesticides. After giving a technical description of the machine, the author informs on the testing conditions and results. He deals in details with capacity, working quality, energetic and operation data. When using the machine, special attention needs to be paid to adjusting lengthwise and transversal horizontality of the implement.
Recommendation for 2003 prices by the Federation of Contractors for Agricultural Machinery Services.
Federation of Contractors for Agricultural Machinery Services prepares and publishes the recommended prices of machinery services every year. This article contains the price list for 2003.
MF 8900: more than a heavy-duty loader (x)
It presents Massey Ferguson loaders.
Nitrogen fertilizer application in the past and today, in Hungary and Europe
(Dr. Tamás Németh)
Nutrient balance for nitrogen and potassium of Hungarian field crop production became positive from the second part, while for phosphorous, from the first part of the 1960s. This period with annual positive balances lasted till the end of the 1980s. The applied amount of nutrients did not reach that of taken up in a particular field until the 1960s, and has not come up to it since the 1990s either. The article discusses the need for a good nutrient supply practice, the decrease of nitrogen level in soils, the preparation of nutrient management recommendations and the bases of nitrogen fertilizer application systems.
Chafers and their damages
(Dr. Kálmán Szeőke)
The brief article summarises the key points of controlling chafers, the pests regularly causing damages in spring.
Made of wine … (2)……..
(Dr. György Pásti)
The second part of the series of articles informs on making dessert wines and vermouths, as well as on distilled wine and marcbrandy. Both groups of beverages are very popular among Hungarian consumers. Readers may get to know the process and technology of making them, and also how to drink them.
BASF press conference in Dubrovnik. Report
(Dr. György Demes)
This year BASF has invited journalists of agricultural periodicals from the Central Eastern European countries to Dubrovnik in Croatia. The aim of the event was to give an account on development ideas in the region, expected tendencies and possible changes, with special attention to the forthcoming EU-accession. The article is a brief summary of what was heard there.
Book review. Apple scab: biology, forecasting and control
(Edited by Imre Holb) (G.P.)
A brief review of the valuable book published at the end of last year.
Agricultural past… Ede Kühne died 100 years ago (1839-1903)
(Dr. László László)
We present the course of life of an outstanding personality of Hungarian agricultural machine production, who was a German by birth.
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)