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Agroforum 2003 March


About top dressing. Definition of the term and history of the topic
(Dr. Imre Kádár)
As an introduction to the group of articles, the paper clarifies the term itself: what do we mean by top-dressing? It looks back to the publications of Hungarian and foreign authors whose works were important in the questions of top-dressing and generally, of nutrient supply. The article points out that experience of especially the western-European authors in fertilizer application and crop production cannot be directly applied due to the different soil, climatic and agronomic conditions in Hungary.

All-round inquiry about top dressing
(Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
Nitrogen fertilizer application in cereals during the season has no alternatives even at the present level of fertilizer use in Hungary. The majority of specialists agree that top dressing involving significant amount of costs is an important element of the crop management programme. The key points to be taken into account in the decision are complex and there is a diverse combination of possible answers to be given to the questions of when? with what? and how much?

We made an all-round inquiry about the principles of top dressing in wheat among the well-known researchers, extension specialists and professionals very familiar with the topic. The following persons took part in the discussion:

Dr. Tamás Árendás senior researcher (Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár),
István Bakonyi agronomist, (Széra Ltd., Sárbogárd),
Dr. József Horváth extension specialist (Soil Management Co., Kaposvár),
Dr. Imre Kádár head of department (Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest),
Dr. Tamás Kismányoky university professor (Veszprém University, Georgikon Agricultural Faculty, Keszthely),
Dr. Ottó Pálmai director (Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Fejér, Velence),
Katalin Varga agrochemicals manager (Agroprodukt Co., Pápa).

The article summarises the most important conclusions. As expected, the answers given to the questions of top dressing and generally nutrient supply are not always coherent and similar, in spite of the fact that the asked specialists represent similar viewpoints. Trial conditions of R&D work, growers’ practical experience, diversity of production sites, as well as the seasonally changing meteorological conditions, etc. all modified the answers to the questions.

Nitrogen fertilizer application and the EU environmental position
(Dr. Tamás Németh)
The article gives an account on the indicated topic linked to the paper on top dressing. In the EU, in compliance with the Council Regulation 2078/92/EEC on the support of „Agricultural production methods compatible with the requirements of the protection of the environment and the maintenance of the countryside”, the member states shall develop and implement a national agro-environment programme. In such programmes the agricultural production methods aiming at the protection of the environment and nature, as well as the conservation of the landscape are supported. In a part of the EU member states, as the common result of the adverse environmental conditions (loose soils, high volume of annual precipitation, groundwater-table close to the surface) and intensive agricultural practice, increased nitrate content of groundwater involved a high environmental load. In order to protect waters against nitrate contamination, the EU enacted the so-called nitrate directive (Council Directive 91/676/EEC), restricting the amount of annually applied organic nitrogen in the field.



Recent results of crop management trials in sunflowers
(Dr. Péter Pepó, László Zsombik)
Among the elements of the sunflower management programme, it is essential to specify certain key points of professional nutrient supply, optimal sowing time and crop density, as well as plant protection. These factors significantly influence crop quality and quantity, therefore their optimization under the given site conditions is essential, considering agronomic requirements and response of the particular varieties. The article is on studying the effect of sowing date, crop density and fertilizer application on the yield of and disease incidence in sunflowers. The authors conclude that selecting the optimum parameters of agronomic elements changes, depending on the hybrids, but it is influenced by various other factors, mostly seasonal effect.

Results of trials with sunflower hybrids in the loess area of Hajdúság
(Dr. Péter Pepó, Dr. Éva Borbély-Hunyadi)
A key element of increasing yields is selecting the appropriate hybrid (variety). There are conspicuous differences among the hybrids in their ecological adaptability and agronomic requirements, and detailed information on them will gain more importance in the future. In the experimental station of the Debrecen University, commercial sunflower varieties were compared for crop quality and quantity between 1998 and 2002. The authors also present the effect of the particular seasons.

Plant protection factors influencing sunflower growing
(Zoltán Papp)
Success of sunflower production is mostly based on selecting the variety, agronomic factors and plant protection situation in the crop. The article deals with the latter two in details. The agronomic elements (selecting the site, preceding, tillage, nutrient supply and plant density) take effect not only directly but also indirectly by adversely or favourably influencing plant protection situation. Disease control and the herbicide programme are the cornerstones of successful plant protection in sunflowers. The author gives a detailed discussion of the farm experience and experimental results obtained in this field. He demonstrates the results in various figures.



Victory in weed control. ROUNDUP® MEGA – places the control in growers’ hand (x)
(Mihály Czepó)
The article shows the advantages of the glyphosate herbicide prepared with a new, efficient adjuvant.

Sugarbeet and Goltix 90 WG (x)
(Dr. Aurél Kádár)
A herbicide spray programme based on Goltix 90 WG (metamitron) is presented.

Major weeds in cereals in county Borsod and possibilities of weed control in spring
(Dr. János Madarász)
The article begins with information on dominant weeds in cereals and the targets of chemical weed control. Herbicides registered for use in winter wheat are tabulated. Finally, the author calls the attention to the key points of the herbicide spray programme to be followed during weed control in spring.

Dangerous pests (I/1.) Rape blossom beetle (Meligethes aeneus)
(Zsolt Marczali, Dr. Gyula Sáringer, Dr. András Takács)
This number of Agrofórum launches a new series titled “Dangerous pests”, providing information on such insect pests which have to be regularly controlled during the season because of the risk they present to the crops. The first member of the series is a major pest of rapes. First the importance, damage, taxonomy and geographic distribution of rape blossom beetle are outlined. After giving a detailed description of the morphology and biology of the pest, the article discusses possibilities for its forecasting. Both cultural and chemical methods have their role in the control. Bee protection requires special attention during chemical treatments. Insecticides registered for use against rape blossom beetle are summarised in a table, indicating the ones that are efficient for the control of also cabbage stem weevil or cabbage seed weevil. Several colour photos illustrate the article.

Plant protection and physiology (x)
(István Tamás)
Information is provided on the plant protection products of Hungarian Kwizda Ltd., recommended for use in spring.

An alternative crop in poor soils: mustard
(Zoltán Nagy)
Mustard, grouped among “minor crops” should deserve more attention due to its importance and crop production advantages. After a short overview on the history of the crop, we can get acquainted with requirements of mustard for soil and climatic conditions, as well as the best precedings. Among crop management operations, soil preparation, seedbed preparation, nutrient supply and sowing are discussed. Chemical weed control and plant protection are addressed under a separate heading. The author gives an account on last year’s experience of seed mustard growing, finally, he deals with the profitability of mustard production, showing convincing data.

The effect of Juwel-treatment on the wet gluten content of winter wheat (x)
(István Füzi)
The paper informs on the recommended uses of the cereal fungicide containing epoxiconazole + kresoxim-methyl based on the results of trials carried out to control winter wheat diseases.

The importance of using adjuvants for increasing efficacy in integrated and ecological crop production (x)
(Dr. Endre Sebestyén)
An account is given on the wide range of uses of Vegesol R 300 SC (copperhydroxide + sunflower oil) and Vegesol eReS 450 SC (copperhydroxide + sulphur + sunflower oil) in horticultural crops. The products are manufactured by Budapest Chemical Works Co.



Subsidies for purchasing new agricultural machines in 2003
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
The agricultural support system of the government has considerably changed this year, taking also the EU requirements into account. However, there has been only a little modification in the subsidies for purchasing new agricultural machines. We still have to pay special attention to supports for machines, because now it seems that this kind of subsidy cannot be applied for in 2004, as such does not exist in the EU.

The Ministerial Decree 3/2003. (I. 24.) FVM provides for agricultural subsidies in 2003. In Chapter I point 2.1. Articles 9-13 lay down subsidies for new agricultural machines and equipment. The beneficiaries are listed under Article 9(1). The extent of subsidies is generally 25% of the price excluding VAT, maximum HUF 60 million, and a support of interest after the granted loan for purchasing may also be applied for. Certain farmers may get special subsidies. According to Articles 6(1) and 9(1) subsidies may be applied for by submitting a project proposal to the Agricultural Office. In most cases subsidies cover machines and equipment listed in the “Catalogue of agricultural machines for 2003” edited by the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering, as specified under Article 10(1). There are strict rules of application for the subsidies, laid down in Articles 12(8)-(11) and 13 of the ministerial decree.

Väderstad drills – as buyers see them (x)
(Tibor Kalmár)
The article summarises good experience in using Väderstad machines.

Testing and adjusting plant protection machines
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
Continuing the article published in the previous number, now we give you an overview about the inspection of plant protection machines at testing station and the adjustment to be made by operators. Machines working in poor technical conditions or adjustment increase environmental pollution and production costs, furthermore they may have adverse effect also on crop quality. The article focuses on the issues of the whole flow system or its certain elements that are important from the point of view of working quality of the machines. Therefore it discusses the troubles of uneven application rate, as well as transversal spreading and vertical liquid distribution, together with the mode of eliminating such problems. The key point of adjusting (calibrating) sprayers is the determination of nozzle size. Adjusting machines designed for orchards and vineyards is covered under a separate heading.



Chronicle (G.P) 33
A brief report on the 13th Plant Protection Forum organized in Keszthely

Agricultural past
(Dr. László László)
We commemorate the outstanding scientist of Hungarian crop production: Sándor Cserháti was born 150 years ago..

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)