Agroforum 2004 April
PROTECTION OF APPLES AND GRAPES
Apple pests and integrated pest management (Dr. Attila Cs. Tóth)
This article is the written version of the lecture delivered by the author on the meeting titled “Integrated management of apple pests …” (Ráckeve, 17 March 2004). Apple IPM, its principles and details can be regarded as developed. The range of key pests, characteristic of the crop is well-known. At the same time, the importance of a particular pest may change over the time and space, and may highly influence the strategy of control. The author outlines the most important information and requirements apple growers currently need to apply and meet for successful and environmentally friendly protection (biology of the pests, forecasting possibilities, management programme options, etc.). Then he takes the 10-12 pests or pest groups, playing a decisive role in the protection of apple orchards, one after the other. The article discusses the most important details of their biology, the principles of control and informs on the insecticides registered for the control of each pest.
Codling moth – really a tough enemy? (Dr. Sándor Bognár)
In the December 2003 number of Practical Agrofórum, dr. Erzsébet Voigt published her article titled „A hard-to-control enemy – codling moth”. The author of this contribution – a university professor of entomology for several decades, investigating the biology, ecological needs and possibilities for control of codling moth – contributes to that article with some details. He focuses on the distribution and host plants of the pest, the increasing damages caused by codling moth and its reasons. Regarding the latter issue, he calls the attention to two major factors: the diapause and the global warming so frequently mentioned nowadays.
Which mites attack grapes in spring? (Dr. Júlia Gyõrffy Molnár, Gabriella Szendrey )
In addition to fungal diseases, mites are the pests imposing the highest risk to the foliage of grapes. Among the mites affecting grapes, the four-legged ones are of special economic importance. Besides them, the eight-legged species also occur. Their damage threatens grapes in bud burst stage. The species most frequently occurring in the Hungarian vineyards are: grape leaf rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), vine leaf blister mite (Colomerus vitis) and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi). The high population of mites can be attributed to the fact that pesticide use reduces the number of the beneficial organisms (predatory mites), the natural enemies of these pests. The authors give an account of the main mite pests. Readers get to know that grape leaf rust mite currently occurs in a minor part of the vineyards, while vine leaf blister mite has taken the lead, regarding the risk it involves. European red mite is a temporary pest in grapes. A separate chapter discusses predatory mites that can be useful partners in mite control. The authors summarize the rules of controlling phytophagous mites in 6 items. Finally, completed with brief, useful information, they give an account of the most important plant protection products registered for the control of mites. Several tabulated lists of pesticides and colour pictures complete the article.
The dynamics of powdery mildew epidemics in the Szekszárd wine-growing region from 1990 to the present (Dr. István Füzi)
The fungus causing powdery mildew (Uncinula necator, its new scientific name is Erysiphe necator) has been native in Hungary since 1853, but it was only at the end of the 19th century when its severe damage was first recorded. Powdery mildew incidence has gradually increased in the wine-growing region of Szekszárd in the first part of the 1980s, and the epidemics became steady by 1996. In the past few years, except for 2001, we could mostly encounter a low or moderate infection pressure. But what was this significant change in the severity of epidemics caused by? What were the characteristic features of powdery mildew epidemics under the changing weather conditions? The author answers the question, analyzing the dynamics of epidemics of the diseases from 1990 to the present. He deals with the source of primary infection (inoculum), if it is mycelia or ascospores, the importance of the volume of these infection sources and the weather conditions influencing them. There is a risk of epidemics, if from August to next May meteorological conditions are favourable for the fungus (conditions of producing, washing-off and overwintering of sexual fruiting bodies, i.e. cleistothecia). The more phases they are favourable for, the higher the risk of epidemics is. Long-term forecasting is allowed by having several years’ series of data. Various figures, tables and colour pictures complete the article.
PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF FIELD CROPS
From production practice. Sugarbeet growing in county Békés (Antal Szilágyi)
The author, a professional grower outlines successful sugarbeet production from soil preparation to harvesting.
If summer is dry, due care needs to be given to prevent powdery mildew in sugarbeet (Dr. András Angeli) (x)
KWS breeding house recommends sugarbeet growers Georgina and Brigitta, its varieties tolerant to Rhizomania and resistant to powdery mildew.
Maize and its beetle (Béla Klopp)
A detailed report on the meeting and exhibition organized in Szekszárd in February 2004 by Szekszárd Crop Protection Ltd. and Agrofórum. The lectures and discussions provided valuable experience to maize growers for the successful control of the pest.
Invite-competition 2003 – The winner (Csilla Hajdú, Endre Mészáros) (x)
Biomark Ltd., distributing the arrestant adjuvant “Invite”, a novelty in the control of Western corn rootworm with its feeding stimulating effect, invited papers to be submitted. The winning one is published here.
Goal – successful weed control in maize! (Attila Takács) (x)
Options for the use of the oxyfluorfen herbicide of Dow AgroSciences.
GrowHow solutions in maize (Dr. Erik Czinege) (x)
Kemira GrowHow recommends its products for the nutrient supply of maize.
Carbamate soil insecticides and Western corn rootworm (Ferenc Kormányos) (x)
The advantages of applying the soil insecticides carbofuran Furadan® 10 G and the carbosulfan Marshal® 25 EC, distributed by Hungarian Kwizda to control the larvae of Western corn rootworm, are outlined.
Seen, heard, read. A successful defence of dissertation in Keszthely (AF)
It is a summary of the defence of dissertation (Ph. D.) of Ida Nagy titled „Weeds of winter rape and the possibilities of controlling broadleaf weeds”
Successes and results of weed control in maize (Dr. György Demes) (x)
Bayer company organised an International Symposium on Weed Control in Maize in Siófok and Hortobágy in late February 2004. Recognised Hungarian weed biologists gave account on the domestic results of weed control in maize, while foreign experiences were delivered by the leading specialists of Bayer CropScience. After the lectures, AF asked one of the Hungarian organisers of the symposium, István Rikk of Bayer Hungaria Ltd. to summarise the most important results and conclusions of the event.
On friendly terms with bees (Mátyás Kleofász) (x)
The author recommends the insecticide Calypso for pest control in potatoes, pome fruits, sunflowers, rapes, sour-cherry and maize, with special attention to beneficial insects.
Study. Self-inducing herbicide resistance (Dr. Péter Solymosi)
Among weeds, the number of resistant biotypes has considerably increased during the past two and a half decades. This is a self-inducing problem: resistance if built up, calls for increasing the applied herbicide dosages, or the herbicides, though used at micro-rates, are persistent. Then, acting as a selection factor, it may accelerate the selection of resistant plants. The first occurrence of the sub-specific herbicide-resistance was recorded in 1951 in South Dakota of USA. At present 300 resistant weed biotypes are filed in fifty countries of the world.
After the introduction, the author explains certain terms related to herbicide resistance. In the following chapters he discusses the selection of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes, the relation of chemical sites of action of herbicides (binding sites) and resistance, finally mentions the factors influencing the building-up of herbicide resistance.
Actualities about Community subsidies in connection with the accession (Miklós Kurucz)
GrowHow megoldások a mikroelem-pótlásban (Imre Kónya) (x)
Kemira GrowHow’s new KelCare products containing micro-elements in a new, chelated form are presented.
About adjuvants – at the beginning of the season (Ms. Hadobás, Dr. Csaba Kõrösmezei)
We cannot efficiently apply the active substances of plant protection products in themselves to the surface of the plant or the targeted surface. Up-to-date pesticides need to meet various requirements (e.g. long storage stability, easy handling, fast absorption, etc.). Therefore active substances need to be completed by other substances, so-called adjuvants during manufacturing. With the development of the pesticide management programmes, e.g. with the introduction of precision sprayers, such requirements were initiated which, using the surfactants to be integrated in the pesticides at their conventional rates, cannot be achieved in most of the cases. Furthermore, low-rate or more concentrated pesticides were placed on the market. During their application certain characteristics such as e.g. appropriate humidity or the spread of the spray on plants have got more importance. The increasing demand for more lasting biological activity and the decrease of chemicals load of the environment resulted in the appearance on the market of the so-called effect-increasing products or adjuvants. The article gives a brief account of the different chemical groups of adjuvants, finishing with the tabulated list of adjuvants registered in Hungary.
Changes in the trade of seeds after the accession (Zoltán Nagy)
Today Hungary is the third seed foreign supplier of the European Union, following Canada and the USA. After the accession, 70% of the domestic seeds intended for markets outside the country will get to the area of the considerably increased European Union. The article calls the attention to the consequences of the EU accession expected in seed industry, based on the lecture delivered by Dr. Tibor Hullán, director the Seed Board at the “Seed Stock Exchange” held in Gödöllõ. The lecture gave an account of the state qualification of plant varieties, the issues of property rights for plant varieties or contracted protection of plant varieties and the changes in the trading of seeds. After the EU accession, the label and certificate of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control will be valid in the whole territory of the Community. In the course of producing high-quality commodities the value of certified seeds will increase. The rules of growing young plants will slightly change, too as the procedures of growing young plants are strictly regulated in the EU. This system includes various elements regarding which Hungarian growers are inexperienced.
The Hungarian Seed Board will do its best to support growers in following the changes of legislation.
Prospects for the operation costs of machines in 2004 (Dr. Lajos Gockler)
A major task of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering (FVMMI) is to gather information on the operation costs of machines and to disseminate it to growers. Therefore the Institute follows the performance and costs of machines in the reference farms. Using such data and the results of testing machines, they prepare a cost forecasting. This work has been done also in 2004. Being aware of the costs is important both for the Institute and the growers, because it can be used for the particular cost calculations, specifying service rates, planning the costs of the own machines, etc.
The article summarises the most important data in detailed tables taken from the publication „Operation costs of machines in 2004”.
Seen, heard, read. Measuring instruments and devices for the mandatory supervision of sprayers shown in AGRO+MASHEXPO 2004 (Dr. György Demes)
Farmcenter Ltd. (Gödöllõ) displayed the measuring instruments and devices suitable for the determination of quality identifiers of application technique, in compliance with the standard MSZ EN 13790 necessary for the supervision of field and orchard sprayers.
The most devoted partner company of Väderstad (x)
Practical experience with Väderstad implements obtained in the Balatonfõ Company at Balatonfõkajár.
Massey Ferguson MF 555 precision drills arouse great interest (x)
Readers may get acquainted with the structure and accessories of the heavy-duty precision drill Massey Ferguson MF 555, displayed on show at Agro+Mashexpo 2004.
Written anno… (Dr. Inczédy Péter)
Mites in vineyards
1. Grape leaf rust mite under the microscope
2. Short internodes on grapes caused by grape leaf rust
3. Vine leaf blister mite adult
4. Vine leaf blister mite larva
5. Felty patches of hair caused by vine leaf blister mite on the lower surface of the leaf
6. Felty patches may coalesce under heavy infestation pressure
7. Bumps caused by vine leaf blister mite on the upper surface of the leaf
8. Vine leaf blister mites inside the erineum
9. European red mite eggs
10. European red mite under the microscope
11. Injury caused by European red mite
12. Predatory mite on leaf attacked by vine leaf blister mite
13. Predatory mite Amblyseius finlandicus under the microscope
14. Predatory mite Zetzellia mali on a leaf
15. Predatory mite Zetzellia mali under the microscope
Photos taken by Dr. Júlia Gyõrffy- Molnár, Gabriella Szendrey and Szilveszter Morvai
Meteorological factors influencing epidemic curves of grapevine powdery mildew in the wine-growing region of Szekszárd, 1990-2004
From cleistothecium production to bunch infestation
Presenting certain herbicide-resistant weed biotyps
1. Phenoxy-acetic acid resistant biotype of Canada thistle (1986)
2. Atrazin-resistant green amaranth plants (1986)
3. Atrazin and diuron-resistant Bouchon-amaranth biotype (1986)
4. Poly-resistant biotype of common lambsquarters (1987)
5. Diuron-resistant biotype of redroot pigweed (1987)
Photo: Dr. Péter Solymosi