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Agroforum 2004 December

LOOKING BACK TO THIS YEAR’S PLANT PROTECTION

About in-crop protection of wheat in 2004
(János Follárdt, Rozália Rátai Vida)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Hajdú-Bihar, summarizing this year’s experiences and lessons, gives an account of the factors that played an important part in the wheat yields of the season. He presents the plant protection situation and the pests that caused major problems. The Readers may get to know the characteristics in which the pest management programme suitable for that county differ from those applied in other regions. The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok observed that, except powdery mildew, none of the winter wheat diseases caused damage more severe than the average, and the efficacy of the treatments were good.

How to use chloronicotinyls to control potato beetle?
(Róbert Víg)
The author calls the attention to the importance of rotating pesticides in controlling potato beetle, because the increase of resistant populations basically depends on chemicals use. He gives an account of a biological efficacy trial where he studied the effect of four chloronicotinyl products against larvae and adults of potato beetle. The insecticides showed excellent efficacy in controlling both larvae and adults, being Calypso 480 SC the most efficient. Based on the obtained results, the proper insecticide rotation may be applied in order to slow down the increase of resistant populations.

Experience and conclusions of grapevine protection in 2004
(Kornélia Csörnyei, dr. István Füzi, Zoltán Nemes,  Szabolcs Makó, Diána Mészáros Pólya, Ágnes Schweigert, László Vukovich)
The authors give an account of their experiences that, among grapevine diseases, powdery mildew and downy mildew were dominant in the three south-western counties Tolna, Baranya Somogy. Powdery mildew affected crop quality and quantity mainly in certain foci. As regards downy mildew, this was the season with the highest epidemics in the past ten years. When factors making the crop susceptible to the disease accumulated, the damage could reach even 100%. No epidemics of grey mould developed in any of the counties.

Pests in 2004 (1). Field crops
(Miklós Tóth, Sándor Kobza, Gábor Szalkai)
The article at the end of the year gives an overview of the plant protection situation in the growing season in wheat, winter barley, maize, potatoes, sugarbeet, sunflowers, rapes and green peas.

OTHER ISSUES OF CROP PRODUCTION

Relationships of the “Target programme of integrated field crop production” and weed control.
(Dr. Péter Reisinger)
The author introduces the article with presenting the decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development containing the detailed rules of granting agri-environment subsidies, a group of which is the target programme indicated in the title. The article details only the provisions for field crops. Wheat, barley, maize, sunflowers, potatoes, winter rapes, sugarbeet, alfalfa and soya bean are included in the target programme of integrated field crop production, therefore the author gives a tabulated information on the active substance registered for the chemical weed control in such crops.

Experiences in Spain with growing Bt maize
(Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
ABE (Agricultural Biotechnology in Europe), the leading biotechnology company in Spain, involving the Antama foundation, organized a technical visit to Spain titled “The practice of growing genetically modified plants” for representatives of agricultural journals in order to get a closer view to producing GM maize. Hungary was represented – as the single invited from the country – by our journal in this international meeting. The author gives an account of what he has seen and heard on the site and read in the handouts about the practice of the coexistence of GM and conventional production and how the provisions on GM production of the European Union are implemented. The article contains a lot of useful information on growing GM crops, as Bt maize has been grown since 1998 in Spain. The crop was used exclusively for feeding at the beginning, while at present human consumption is also approved. Nowadays there are 350 hybrids on the Spanish national list of varieties, of which 16 ones are Bt-hybrids.

New dimensions in maize growing – new, exciting patches of colour on the palette of KWS (x)
Based on his own experience, Tatzl Johann, the manager of Tyrol Ltd. tells the Readers why it is worth choosing the product range of KWS.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

The EU going in for an examination in intervention!
(Dr. István Csíbor)
In this inspiring article the author raises a lot of questions about the “institution” of intervention that would be worth to be reliably answered for each grower.

Seen, heard, read. Agrofórum Club again!
(Attila Kosztolányi)
This is a brief report about the second club meeting of our journal.

The painter of plants
(dr. Gabriella Benécs Bárdi)
For the recent articles of the series about weeds titled “Dangerous 48” of Practical Agrofórum, the high-standard drawings of the plants are prepared by a talented young artist, Zsuzsanna Abonyi. In connection with her exposition in Gödöllő, Readers may get a brief insight into the work of the artist.

Note for growers. About the National Rural Development Plan (1)
(Miklós Kurucz)
In addition to the Note published in the previous number informing on the Operative Programme of Agriculture and Rural Development, the objectives of the National Rural Development Plan recently approved by Brussels are also suitable for financially basing rural development and obtaining EU subsidies. This plan is a direct continuation of the PHARE and SAPARD programmes. This note informs on the titles of proposals for projects in the National Rural Development Plan.

The past and present of agricultural education in Mosonmagyaróvár.
The legal predecessor of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Science in Mosonmagyaróvár, the “Economic Private School of Magyar-Óvár” was founded by Albert Kázmér, a Saxon-Teschen prince in 1818. The outstanding ancestors and the current academic and research staff pay special attention to the high-standard education and investigation, committed to seek the new, not neglecting the values established in the past. Readers may get to know the changes that will take place in the life of the faculty from 2005.

Commemorating dr. Gyula Herczeg
(Sándor Ladányi)
We take leave from the first president of the Hungarian Chamber of Plant Protection Professionals and Doctors of Plant Medicine, dr. Gyula Herczeg, knowing his devoted, productive career from the article of Sándor Ladányi.

From our agricultural past. Professor Dr. Imre Rázsó was born 100 years ago
(dr. György Demes)
The author commemorates dr. Imre Rázsó, the one-time professor of the Budapest Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. He presents the rich course of life of one of the most outstanding personalities in agricultural engineering, with snapshots of its most important stages.

Seen, heard, read. Food industry exposition and fair in Mosonmagyaróvár
(Gyula Kettinger)
The author reports on the 4-day EU regional exposition and fair organized in Mosonmagyaróvár for the first time, hosted by the local university.

Written anno. …
(dr. Péter Inczédy)

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Focusing on: mechanisation costs. The economic effects of agricultural mechanisation (2)
(dr. István Husti)
In the fierce market competition of our times only those farmers meet successfully the challenges of their competitors who are able to make the best of their intellectual and material resources with due efficacy. The performance and output of a particular holding basically depend on its capacities. Therefore it is important that production capacities are available for the undertaking and the existing capacities are utilized in the best way possible. The author contributes to it with a detailed description of economic questions of utilizing machines.

About the results of a 5-year cooperation (x)
The article informs on the several years’ experience with Väderstad machines obtained in the Bóly Agricultural Co.

History of developing fertilizer broadcasters (1)
(dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
Nowadays the majority of fertilizers are applied with spinning fertilizer distributors. In the past fifteen years there have been significant changes regarding such machines also in Hungary. Up-to-date, accurately applying machines with wide working width have been introduced from abroad and the Hungarian developments have also been successful. The author guides Readers from as far as the early 19th century to the date, showing the developmental route of fertilizer distributors, completed with figures.

Annex

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND CROP SAFETY

The safe production of GM (genetically modified) crops in Hungary
(dr. László Bódis)
The GM varieties have considerably spread in the past few years. Thus the EU had no choice but to give free play to field trials then to the approval of GM crops that covers first the distribution, later also growing of such plants. In the first step of this process, in autumn 2004, seventeen fodder maize hybrids and a sweetcorn variety were included in the Common List of the EU, which does not imply authorization for distribution of the GM-varieties. Then the author presents the recommendation of the EU Commission prepared for disentangling the difficult situation. The next part of the article deals with the problems and discusses prospects of involving GM crops in growing. Finally, a brief information is given on the results of a survey and a study conducted in the frame of a project of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development on the coexistence of plants in GM, conventional and ecological growing. The details were published in the proceedings of the conference “Biotechnology and crop safety”.

Possibilities for growing GM crops and ecological farming
(dr. Ervin Balázs)
The author describes the development of crop management programmes in chronological order and the factors influencing the idea of putting principles of growing GM-crops in practice. He also mentions that the alternative farming systems do not accept the advantages of GM technology, though they produce plants providing basic materials of better quality (oil, protein, etc.) and also other ones resistant to certain pests and diseases.

My reservations regarding the Hungarian implementation of co-existence
(dr. László Heszky)
In order to better understand the raised topic, the author explains certain terms in the introduction. It is followed by a brief overview of the reasons why coexistence of GM, organic and conventional growing is necessary in the European Union. Reading the article, we get the answer also to the question why it is important to address this issue in our country, as Hungary is a GMO-free area at the moment. Then the author outlines the basic problems regarding the introduction of coexistence, and recommends some solutions for certain steps of the crop management programmes. Finally, he emphasizes the issues of feasibility and traceability. Concluding all these, he states that for an expert, the “coexistence” is one of the wrong decisions made by the European Union at the beginning of the 21st century and it is expected to be withdrawn in the near future.

The prospects of ecological growing in the EU and Hungary
(dr. László Radics, Izóra Gál, Péter Pusztai, Anna Ertsey)
The first part informs on the progress of ecological growing in the world. It turns out from the article supported with diagrams and figures that, though the ecological production of products is growing all over the world, consumption is still concentrated in the industrialized countries, and the increase of the West-European market is slowing down. The second part presents the prospects of ecological farming in Hungary and Western Europe.

Flashback. „The obstacles of the spread of fertilizer application”
Reading the rows taken from the paper “POLGÁR” published on 22 December 1909, you can have an insight into the opinion of our ancestors: what kind of barriers did they see in front of the spread of fertilizer application at the beginning of the past century?

The relation of ecological farming and genetically modified organisms
(dr. Péter Roszík)
By now sharp differences have arisen between the people accepting GMOs and the ones following ecological farming, so introduces the author. He analyses the possibilities of using GM products first from the point of view of consumers, then from that of the growers of organic products. At the end of the article we are informed about the rules concerning the use of GMOs as part of the provisions of ecological farming.

The growing/breeding of useful transgenic species as complex risk factors
(dr. József Ángyán, dr. Zoltán Menyhért, dr. Adrienne Varga, dr. Gábor Vida, András Takács-Sánta, Veronika Móra, dr. Géza Márai)
The authors begin with defining the terms of genetically modified organisms (GMO) and transgenic organisms (TGO). They inform Readers that 675 transgenic plant varieties were released for trial purposes in 28 countries of the world between 1986 and 1993, intended to solve problems mainly related to crop management. They follow with considering the reasons which justify that transgenic plants threaten genetic diversity. They list and discuss the points that challenge the objectives set by agri-biotechnology and the reasons of applying it. In addition, they call the attention to certain contradictions that exist under Hungarian conditions between ecological farming and the use of GMOs. The authors prepare a detailed analysis of the factors and events for which Hungarian consumers clearly refuse GM organisms.

Károly Ereky, the father of biotechnology whom the 20th century forgot
(dr. Pál U. Kralovánszky, dr. Miklós Fári)
The authors wish to commemorate Károly Ereky. There may be only a few who are aware that the creation of the word “biotechnology” is attributed to him. You may get to know the life and work of a man who can well be an example also for the present-day researchers, scientists and experts.