Agroforum 2004 May
Why to be afraid of the European Union? Let’s learn it because … (Dr. Attila Rózsás)
A new era begins in Hungary’s history with the accession to the European Union, likely to bring both advantages and adverse effects. However, only the succeeding generations will be able to give a realistic evaluation about it. The present generation has undertaken the accession, being aware of its pros and contras. The author thinks that this belief determines the basic duality of our strategy, the key point of which is to do everything at the quickest way possible to receive the good and to try preventing the occurrence of the adverse before they reach our frontiers. Therefore first we need to learn the European Union and then to tailor it to our interests and “taste”. The author expresses his opinion in the spirit of these thoughts about the following topics: Actually what is the European Union? What will be the characteristic feature of the Hungarian agriculture and enterprises after the EU accession? Which standards do we need to adapt to following our accession? What kinds of misunderstandings and misbelieves do we need to clear up and what dilemmas will we face? Who can be considered prepared? What strategy and future prospects can be outlined for agriculture in the new situation?
Notes for growers. At the beginning of the European integration (Miklós Kurucz)
Under the new circumstances after the accession, growers shall face several new phenomena not having been experienced before. Together with the EU funds, the sector will receive more subsidies, however, it will be more difficult to obtain them. Growers in the existing member countries are better provided with capitals and have known the rules for a long time. Competition will be fiercer than producers got accustomed to, and the number of losers will increase. Average activities will be enough only for results below the average. There are and will be certain Community regulations which must not be evaded. The author concludes that since the 1st of May Hungary has better possibilities for establishing a sound agricultural sector and a flourishing country again. It depends also on us if we take the opportunity or not.
Rural development consultants met in Gödöllő (Zoltán Nagy)
The National Federation of Rural Development Consultants was founded in 2002 with the aim of supporting the more and more important activity of consultants working for rural development. Hungary’s EU accession will obviously create new possibilities for rural population by improving their living conditions. The Operative Programme for Agricultural and Rural Development and the National Rural Development Plan offer sources in the magnitude of hundred thousand million Hungarian forints for those who prepare project proposals for rural development worth supporting. Experienced consultants are really instrumental in this work. The article summarises the most important conclusions and the further jobs to be done dealt with at the national meeting of rural development consultants.
ECOLOGICAL APPLE GROWING
Approaching Hungary’s EU accession, the arguments of the importance and expected advantages, as well as of the good market possibilities of products produced in ecological growing are more and more frequently brought up. Especially good prospects are expected for horticultural goods, within them, mainly for vegetables and fruits. At the same time, the most intensive chemical pest management is applied during the production of such crops, even if we, more and more widely, may meet implementing the principles of integrated plant protection. Ecological, or in everyday language, organic farming has a several decades’ international history. In the European Union the share of organic farming among horticultural crops is 8.19 % (1999). The largest area involved in ecological production (around 1 million hectares) and the highest number of organic farms are in Italy.
This chapter of the journal gives an insight into Hungarian ecological production and within it apple growing by recognized authors.
Ecological fruit growing – possibilities and difficulties (Dr. István Gonda)
Among fruit crops, the biggest challenge in ecological production is probably meant by apples. Its reason is the fact that even in apples, applying an integrated crop management programme with much less restrictions, depending on the year, 12-18 chemical treatments need to be carried out in order to ensure freedom from pests and diseases. As it is not possible in ecological production, according to foreign and Hungarian experiences, if ecological fruit growing is followed, an average 30-40 % yield loss with a considerable reduction of crop quality may be expected. The author summarises all the difficulties and problems that are barriers to the implementation and spread of ecological production. The second part of the article discusses issues specific to ecological fruit growing (crop condition, rootstock, cultivar, planting material, spacing, crown form). Finally, the key cultural operations with fruit trees in ecological growing, pruning and thinning are dealt with.
Experience of environmentally friendly (integrated and ecological) apple management programmes (Klára Bitskey)
The article gives an overview of the beginning, spread and current situation of ecological and integrated productions in Europe and Hungary. It is followed with reporting on the trial established at Pallag Research Station by the Debrecen University ATC in 1997. In the one-hectare apple orchard planted with 40 cultivars, the effect of the particular environmentally benign crop management programmes is studied on different apple cultivars, under the same climatic and soil conditions. In half of the experimental orchard, organic farming complying with the strict rules (under the control of Biokontroll Hungária Co.) is implemented, while integrated production is followed in the other half hectare. The author gives an account of the key characteristics of the applied crop management programme (weed control, plant protection and cultural operations with the trees). Among the results, she mainly deals with yields, fruit infections and chemical composition of the fruit. Data are tabulated and shown in diagrams.
Apple scab control in ecological production (Dr. Imre Holb)
The author begins with stating that in ecological growing, the efficacy of plant protection is much lower than in conventional or integrated pest management programmes. Protecting apples in ecological growing, it is also very important to have an established system in the orchard where the populations of pests and pathogens, as well as of their natural enemies are in balance. The components of the crop management programme supporting plant protection in ecological growing (choosing the crop and the cultivars, nutrient management, soil conservation, tillage and irrigation) are discussed in details. During the presentation of plant protection in ecological growing it turns out that, comparing with other crop management systems, there are only a few effective means of control. Materials recommended to control the diseases are the different mineral milling products, plant oils, extracts and infusions, biological preparations and microbial extracts. With certain restrictions it is allowed to use ventilate sulphur powder, copper products, iron and zinc in sulphate and oxide bonds, water-glass (potassium-silicate), potassium-permanganate, quartz powder and calcium-sulphite.
Nordox 75 WG – red changes for green, or a real red copper from the Vikings (x) (Tivadar Mathiász)
The advantages of using the copper-oxide fungicide are shown.
PRODUCTION OF FIELD CROPS
Recent results about the herbicide sensitivity of sweetcorn hybrids (Ferenc Molnár)
Chemical weed control in sweetcorn, due to the high herbicide-sensitivity of hybrids, is a special task of plant protection. It requires due professional skills and much care from growers. This article is a good help in it by presenting the recent results of the trials having been carried out since 1996. Among the 95 tested hybrids, the author selected the ones that were involved in the trial at least for two years. Similarly, among the weed control treatments, only those are discussed which were applied at least twice to the same hybrids and were used in the trials also after 2000. From the article containing a huge number of data, readers may also know the other conditions of the trial (site, dates of spraying and growth stages of maize, evaluation method). The results are presented grouping according to the time of application (pre-emergence, early post-emergence and post-emergence) in textual and tabulated forms. This information is essential for sweetcorn growers.
Weed control trials in maize in areas infested with dangerous weeds (István Dávid, László Szabó)
The suppression of weed populations is the key point of maize growing, the success or failure of which basically influences the profitability of production. As this plant has a high share in the cropping area of maize growing farms, the safety of its weed control is essential. The dangerous weed species appearing in more and more areas and infesting fields at an increasing population density are a big challenge for weed control.
The authors established chemical trials on two sites at Debrecen-Látókép infested with various hard-to-control species. The paper assesses the efficacy of nine post-emergence herbicides against common thorn apple, cocklebur species, Venice mallow, redroot pigweed and barnyardgrass
Control of Western corn rootworm in Agro Bölcske Co., experience with applying Invite (x) (Dr. János Sűrű)
This is about the work submitted to and placed second in the competition called by Biomark Ltd.
Seen, heard, read. How seeds are born? – a book exhibition in Martonvásár (Zoltán Molnár)
On the occasion of coming out of the books “How seeds are born” (Ed.: dr. Zoltán Bedő) and Current maize topics – 2004 (Ed.: András Tímár), Agroinform Publisher, the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Syngenta Ltd. held a book and publication exposition together with a technical meeting in Martonvásár on 23 March.
Quality wheat growing, using Falcon (x) (László Farády)
Bayer informs on the efficacy of its tebuconazole fungicide in the control of Fusarium diseases of cereals.
Is it the quality that has become the point? (x) (DuPont)
DuPont presents the advantages of its flusilazole + carbendazim fungicide Alert® against the Fusarium diseases of cereals.
Regent – lasting protection against barley leaf beetle in cereals (x)
BASF’s fipronil insecticide is recommended for use.
Invited to Brazil, to a quickly developing factory in a promising country (Dr. György Demes)
Probably there are only a few people in agriculture who have not met in a form or other with the name ‘John Deere’. There are much more who have had the opportunity to judge for themselves the quality, outstanding performance and reliability of John Deere tractors and agricultural implements. Year by year the company also sees to inform technical journalists, because in 36 factories located in 12 countries of the world, there are always plenty of results which may be worth informing the technical public. It happened also this year when, after visiting the factory in Zweibrücken, a group of European technical journalists, among them, that of our journal was invited to the John Deere factory in Brazil. In addition to presenting the plant delivering machines also to the European market and introducing the local manufacturing standards, the objective of the invitation was to let a short insight into the country’s special climatic conditions so different from those of Europe and into the dynamically growing agriculture that can be a lesson also to others.
High quality work with significant saving of costs – possible only by using high quality implements (x)
József Molnár is one of the major organic farmers in Eastern-Hungary, managing 1000 hectares at Kömlő (in county Heves). The article is on his experience with Väderstad implements
Pöttinger works today for tomorrow’s success (x)
The fodder crop harvesters of Pöttinger manufacturing company, distributed by Raiffeisen Agrohouse Ltd. are introduced.
Seen, heard, read. AXIÁL Ltd has shown the full range of its products at Lajosmizse also this year (Dr. György Demes)
It is already the third year when, on the approach of the spring, Axiál Ltd. invites agricultural professionals to Gerébi Mansion at Lajosmizse and its vicinity. The aim of the series of events is to give account, within striking distance, of the increasing range of services offered for Hungarian growers. The participants could see a “moving field show” completed with a display of machines where they could consult the representatives of the manufacturer. Visitors could also get acquainted with the company’s offer for spare parts and used machines, their services, hear about the utilization of the particular banking constructions and the possibilities of renting machines, and who felt like doing it, could also go for a test driving. Colour pictures complete the report
Horsch Pronto for one-pass tillage and drilling (x)
Raiffeisen Agrohouse Ltd. describes and offers a new one-pass tillage and drill machine.
Horsch Tiger field crop cultivator for reduced tillage replacing ploughing and incorporation of stem-residues (x)
The machine distributed by Raiffeisen Agrohouse Ltd. is recommended for soil cultivation.
Thrips tolerance of a Welsh onion variety (Krisztina Hudák, Béla Pénzes)
Dry summers of the recent years were very favourable for the population increase of onion thrips, therefore the pest caused significant damages in vegetables, especially in onions and cabbages. This is why the authors’ observation is very important, stating that in summer 2002 there was a considerable difference in onion thrips injury in the similarly managed, seeded onions and Welsh onions. There were practically no injuries on ‘Parade’ plants of Welsh onions.
The paper presents the results of field trials studying the susceptibility of Welsh onions at Soroksár in summer 2003.
Pocket DiagnosticTM – detecting pathogens in 5 minutes (Péter Garamvölgyi)
In their everyday work, growers and plant protection professionals often see symptomatic plants affected by pests and diseases that can be hardly identified with good reliability by visual observation. While the majority of diseases and pests can be recognized without difficulties by professionals working in the practice, the clear diagnosis of the particular physiological disorders, deficiencies, virus diseases requires special conditions, i.e. laboratory tests. The author introduces a stop-gap quick test, allowing identification of the pathogen immediately, in the crop.
Quality solutions using the fungicide Mirage 45 EC (x) (Katalin Begala-Kiszelya, György Báthory)
The possible uses in sunflowers and stone fruits of the prochloraz fungicide distributed by Biomark Ltd. are presented.
Written anno … (Dr. Péter Inczédy)
Novelties on the field machine show of Axiál Ltd.at Lajosmizse
Photo by Dr. György Demes
- MANITOU MLT 834-120 LSU telehandler
- SULKY Polyrac towed fertilizer distributor
- BERTHOUD Major 3200/25 field sprayer
- BERTHOUD Boxer 3000/30 high-clearance sprayer (1300 mm free height)
- SUPERTINO bale shredder, (4-6 m3 tank, 18 m spraying distance)
- Annaburger fertilizer distributor (10 t, 12-20 m spraying width)
- SIMBA Flatliner heavy-duty seedbed preparator
- Tume Noka drill. One-pass sowing and fertilizer distribution
- Monosem NG Plus 12-row precision drill
- CLAAS Jaguar 850 field chopper with RU 450 adapter
Invited to Brazil …
Photos taken by Dr. György Demes
Snapshots from Brazilian agriculture
1. Characteristic landscape in Cerrados: huge soyabean and maize fields
2. Direct drilling of maize in stubble on 23 March 2004. in Apolo farm
3. A single soyabean plant
4. A cattle breed characteristic of Brazil: zebu
…and John Deere factory
5. The hosts and guests in the John Deere factory in Horizontina
6. Their greatest boast now is the new dyeing apparatus
7. JD 9200 drills under assembly
8. Mounting of tractors in a belt-system
9. Tractor cabs waiting for mounting
10. JD 6405 tractors waiting for dispatching
11. JD STS combine during assembly
12. JD 1450 WTS combine in the last stage of assembling
13. 9650 STS combine – ready for use