Agroforum 2004 March
Correlation of income and accumulation in the agricultural sector (Dr. Éva Borszéki)
The author is a well-known economist who is seeking the answer to the question whether it is acceptable and if it is the interest of Hungary to loose the importance of agriculture so considerably. The role of the agricultural sector in the national economy has been decreasing since the 1980s, and this process has accelerated since the political transformation. The gross agricultural production has gradually diminished since 1989 with a significant decline in the early ‘90s. As a whole, the output of the sector is still by 20% lower than it was in 1990. The share of agriculture from the GDP fell below 4% and even together with food industry it is still around 7%. The proportion of the sector is similarly low in the developed countries. In parallel with the reduced role of Hungarian agriculture, its income-producing capacity has also slowed down.
In the decrease of incomes, in addition to the market reasons (decline of consumption, changed product structure and quality requirement of foreign markets), the loss of efficacy that can be attributed to policy on land ownership, certain financial reasons also take part. These are: reduced agricultural subsidies, the widening of the price gap between agricultural and industrial products and the problems of agricultural financing.
Changes in the structure of authorized plant protection products after the accession to the EU (Dr. István Eke)
On the date when Hungary becomes a member of the European Union with full powers, the authorization system of plant protection products of the Community will enter into force also in our country. One of its key elements is that the registration of active substances of plant protection products is not the competence of the Member States but of the Commission in Brussels, and only the formulated products will be registered at national level. This does not mean that the active substances authorized by the Commission can be immediately and automatically used in any member country. The re-registration programme of existing active substances was launched a decade ago. As a result of it, the remaining actives are put on the so-called “positive list”. The plant protection products, the re-registration of which is not initiated by their manufacturers (non defended actives), are withdrawn from the EU market. The article gives a tabulated list of active substances and the products formulated from them to be withdrawn from the Hungarian market after our accession. Accordingly, the registration documents of such products will be withdrawn till 1 May 2004 with the note that the stocks in trade can be marketed for a further 6 months, i.e. till 30 October and the products at the growers’ premises can be used during the season in 2005.
Therefore the structure of plant protection products allowed for use in Hungarian agriculture will not change practically in 2004, though there will surely be such products the supply of which will not be comparable to that of the previous years.
PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF SUNFLOWER
Incidence of sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi) in Hungary, rust resistance of sunflower varieties and hybrids in 2003 (Zsuzsanna Birta Vas, Dr. Pál Békési, Dr. Klára Manninger)
A well-known pathogen of sunflowers is rust (Puccinia helianthi), which, however did not cause a problem in Hungary in the past decades. The disease arose at the end of the season, during ripening and did not cause a significant damage to the crop. Therefore there was no possibility for studying rust resistance of the particular sunflower varieties and hybrids for various decades. Differently from the previous years, the authors witnessed a severe outbreak of rust in August 2003. The field trial of resistance of sunflower varieties to rust was conducted in Tordas, at the Variety Experimental Station of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control, while resistance of the young plants was studied in Budapest, in the glasshouse of the Plant Protection Research Institute. The field studies only targeted to the infection level in the plants. Various varieties and variety candidates were severely infected with rust and at the same time there were varieties showing excellent resistance to the disease. Tabulated data complete the textual information.
Experience with the use of Koni WG in sunflower (x) (Imre Szabó)
The farm professional reports on his experience with a fungal biopesticide containing Coniothyrium to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflowers.
Sunflower growing, as we see it! (András Sebestyén)
In the Cooperative „Kossuth” at Tevel, sunflowers have been grown for several decades. It was a problem during long years that the profitability of the sector could not be calculated and the yields could not be stabilized. The author, a leading professional of the farm, gives an account on how they revised and rationalized their crop management programme in order to obtain higher yields and better profitability.
On the weed control in sunflower – in a nutshell (Zsuzsa Hoffmann Pathy)
In 2003 the limiting factor of sunflower growing was the success of weed control. It was rainfall that determined the outcome of the operation and it is likely to do so in 2004, as well. The article gives a summarising table on the herbicides registered for use in sunflowers, presenting the spectrum of weeds they can control.
Galigan – overcomes the troubles of “time” (x) (Dr. Aurél Kádár)
The oxyfluorfen herbicide is presented for use in sunflowers.
GrowHow solutions for supplying nutrients to sugarbeet and sunflower (x) (Dr. Erik Czinege)
Kemira company’s recommendation for nutrient supply in the two crops.
Agil 100 EC – a solution for the control of grass weeds (x) (Dr. Aurél Kádár)
The advantages of the propaquizafop herbicide for cereals are outlined for applying it in various dicot crops.
PROTECTION OF CEREALS
Effect of provocative treatments with herbicides on the yield of wheat varieties (Dr. Tamás Árendás, Dr. Péter Bónis)
While the pesticide manufacturers produce newer and newer products, the number of wheat varieties in commercial growing or directly before state qualification is also increasing. The time available for obtaining a more detailed knowledge of the agronomic responses of a particular genotype is decreasing. The response of over 20 qualified varieties and second- and third-year variety candidates are tested on more than seven hundred plots established with the herbicide phytotoxicity trial at Martonvásár. In the provocative trial, the double of the maximum registered rate of 11 herbicides were applied after the recommended growth stage to plants over the optimum development for the treatment. The results are given separately for durum milling wheat and high gluten content wheat. The most important conclusion of the five-year long provocative herbicide phytotoxicity study was that varieties, bred in Martonvásár and tested under optimum cultural but varied weather conditions, tolerated the “deliberate poisoning” without any sign in most of the cases.
On the herbicides used in cereals (x) (László Farády)
The article gives an account on the possibilities for using the amidosulfuron + iodosulfuron Sekator and the iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium + mefenpyr-ethyl Huszár for weed control in cereals.
In dry spring, a good idea is equal to the May rain (dr. Gabriella Benécs-Bárdi)
For some time farmers have been looking for the solutions and machines by which a mixture of trifluralin + Racer (fluorchloridon) could be evenly incorporated at 4 cm depth in the soil of sunflowers, and sugarbeet growers also more and more frequently decide on shallow incorporating herbicides e.g. Goltix (metamitron). The implements generally used up to now were not suitable for such soil management in appropriate quality while the spring-tine harrow is tailored just to this need. The article on the use of the Hatzenbichler-harrow may count on the interest of every grower. This is a special harrow suitable for precise work due to its high capacity to follow soil surface and to be adjusted.
PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF OTHER FIELD CROPS
Dangerous pests (I/8) Rodents (Rodentia) (Árpád Zaják)
Rodents may cause severe economic losses and epidemics in various parts of the world. Among the Hungarian rodent species, dangerous pests can be found in the fields, orchards and vegetable gardens they are the common hamster (Cricetus cricetus), common vole (Microtus arvalis) and water vole (Arvicola terrestris), while in grain stores and farm buildings the mouse (Mus musculus) and wharf-rat (Rattus norvegicus). After the taxonomy and morphology of the pests (figure and table), the authors give an account of their biology. Among control issues, they discuss forecasting possibilities and the methods of cultural, biological (natural enemies) and chemical means. They point out that the most important rule of control is not to let these pests establish and produce high population densities. Fewer rodents can be managed at lower costs, reduced losses and at lower risk to environment and nature.
Prospects of rape in 2004 (Dr. Teréz Eőri)
After last year’s poor rape yields, the author would like to assist growers with her recommendations for cultural operations. She briefly outlines the key elements of the crop management programme (nutrient supply, plant protection, etc.) and gives practical advice to growers, so that they could reach as high yields as possible this year.
Confession of a maize grain waiting for sowing (Dr. István Csíbor)
The match of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) – Lontrel: 0 : 4 (x) (István Szabó)
Lontrel, the clopyralid herbicide on the stage.
Will there be a break-through in potato growing after the accession to the EU? (Zoltán Nagy)
The Hungarian potato growing is in a lasting crisis that probably has not touched the bottom. Due to the decreasing profitability, the cropping area has been reduced below 30,000 ha, of which only a fraction, some 1,200 ha is propagating area. The extremely dry weather, characteristic of the past three years, continued in 2003, therefore the average yield in Hungary did not reach even 18 t/ha. In addition, severe quarantine problems make Hungarian seed and ware potato supply more difficult. The time has come when it is not enough to speak about the potato sector but urgent measures need to be taken. The specialists discussed the prospects in a meeting titled “Potato Sector Forum” organized by the Potato Research Centre of the Veszprém University in Keszthely at the end of January. The “citadel” of the Hungarian potato research, also affected in this issue, hosts this event year by year in the hope of revealing the problems and contributing to the positive changes. The author asked the director of the institute, dr. Zsolt Polgár about the troubles worrying the Hungarian researchers. Urgent changes are needed for competitiveness also in this field, especially in the use of varieties and seed potatoes, old-fashioned commercial and consumer traditions, as well as in phasing out obsolete crop management programmes.
Use of Trichogramma egg parasitoid species for the control of cotton bollworm (Gyula László, Péter Kovács, Sándor Hegedûs)
Trichoplus, the product containing Trichogramma egg parasitoid wasps as active macro-organisms, has been registered for marketing and use in Hungary since November 2002. It was applied in practice already last year, altogether in almost 400 hectares to control cotton bollworm. Growers used parasitoid wasps especially in sweetcorn and seed maize, but some of them tried it also in field and greenhouse peppers and tomatoes. The article evaluates the results of this biological control method, completely harmless to the environment and involving no pesticide residue problems, in the fields of a few sweetcorn growers. It also compares its outcome with the efficacy of a treatment carried out with a relatively environmentally friendly indoxacarb insecticide of short pre-harvest interval.
„Let’s make all efforts!” – be shallow (x) (András Lakatos, István Oláh)
Nitrokémia 2000 Co. introduces its products Acenit A 880 EC (acetochlor + AD-67 safener) and Erunit Profi (acetochlor + atrazin + AD-67 safener) taking its new slogans „ Let’s make all efforts” and „Make a full count” into consideration.
Briefly on weed control in peas and soybeans (Zoltán Varga, Sándor Gara)
The article discusses the conditions influencing the success of weed control for planning weed management and choosing the method to be applied in the two crops, and summarises the registered herbicides and their efficacy against the most dangerous weeds in peas and soybean, in a tabulated form.
Chickpea of Õrség and Transylvania and the Kompolt Pax (Dr. István Geczki)
The author gives an account of the results of propagating chickpea in the Agricultural Research Institute in Kompolt between 1993 and 2003 in a very colourful style. The very healthy protein source, grown in several countries of the world as a staple food crop, became a task of Hungarian breeders in the 1980s in the frame of the protein programme to produce raw material for feeds. The article takes one after the other the risks and problems involved in its production under our climate.
PROTECTION OF FRUITS AND GRAPES
The status of fireblight in spring 2004 (Gáspár Istvánné, Gábor Mezõ, Dr. Zsolt Mike, Dr. Sándor Csete, Adrienne Garai, Gábor Zsolnai, Ferenc Merõ, Dr. Lajos Hertelendy)
As our Readers have experienced it during the past few years, fireblight has a priority among the topics for our journal. In the recent years we published such articles several times, informing Readers about the situation throughout the country, the disease incidence in the severely affected counties and the problems of control, as well as about the recommended methods. In this number we inform growers again on the fireblight situation in 2003 and the experience in its control. In order to give a country-wide overview and to contribute to preparing for 2004, we ask, among them the following questions from the phytopathologists of the plant protection and soil conservation services of counties Bács-Kiskun, Békés, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Zala: How high was the disease incidence in the county in 2003? Has there been found any phenomenon in the biology and damage of the pathogen different from the known ones? How well did the forecasting system work? What kind of chemical treatments were applied in practice and what experience were obtained? Have the behaviour and opinion of growers changed upon the severe infections in several counties during the past years? How can or shall we live together with fireblight?
We asked… What changes can be count on in the pesticide use against fireblight after the EU accession (AF)
Dr. Gellért Gólya, an official of the Department for Plant Health and Soil Conservation of the MARD answered the question.
Development of the knowledge on the biology and control of grape vine leaf blister mite from the late 1800s to nowadays (Dr. György Sárospataki)
Since the late 1990s, the characteristic injuries by grape vine leaf blister mite (Colomerus vitis Nalepa) have been seen more and more frequently in the different vine-growing regions of Hungary. Its outbreak and the caused losses reached a peak in 2003. It was conspicuous especially in the vineyards around Balatonboglár. On certain varieties there were hardly any plants which, in spite of the control, were free from the damage. The treatments carried out after the appearance of the more and more severe symptoms provided only partial results. The specialists of the Boglár Plant Practitioners and Viticoop Ltd. coordinating pest management in vineyards around Balatonboglár selected grape vine leaf blister mite for one of the main topics of their plant protection meeting organized in September 2003. The paper gives an account of the presentation delivered on the event.
Vaderstad-clinics. The Swedish technology has proved it again (x)
The article summarises the experience with Väderstad implements obtained in the farm of Péter Györke at Szigetbecse.
Under the magnifying glass… (26.) A Kertitox 1500 sprayer for orchards (Dr. György Dimitrievics)
According to the tests performed in the laboratory of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering at Gödöllõ, the author informs about the technical data on the output, working quality, energetics, operator safety and on the operation of the sprayer, as well as on its maintenance.
Seen, heard, read. We asked … what agricultural activities and investments for mechanisation are eligible for support this year and the following ones? (Dr. György Demes)
On the occasion of the press conference held in January 2004 by the Federation of Agricultural Machine Distributors (MEGFOSZ), we asked Dr. József Hajdú, the deputy general director of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Dr. János Molnár, the senior counsellor of the Ministry of Finance about the subsidies available for farmers in the year of the EU accession and further on.
Seen, heard, read. About maize in Szekszárd (Dr. Csíbor István)
Agrofórum and Szekszárd Plant Protection Ltd. organized an exciting meeting in Szekszárd in the middle of February for the ones “devoted” to maze. The report is on the farm experiences that the participants shared with each other.
Seen, heard, read. III. Forum for the users of Amalgerol (Zoltán Molnár)
The event focused on the practical experience with the plant and soil conditioner Amalgerol.
Student’s page „Fish pond” in the field – on the surface ponding with a student’s eye (Balázs Fáy, Zsolt Utasi)
„Damages caused by standing water decrease the cultivability of the soil, but bad soil condition is at least as important in its establishment as the rising of groundwater level. It’s a pity that this is a topical problem in spite of last year’s long-lasting drought. It is, because after the October and November rains, in several fields (fortunately only in a smaller spots), surface ponding has appeared again. Based on the trials it is not surprising that in such fields and soils drought damages were also more significant. The bad, compacted soil condition therefore increases the harmful effect of both weather extremities” – state the authors, the students of the Szent István University, Gödöllő.
Creation and operation of the Cseber Kht. in 2003 (Péter Lantos)
This is a report on the results of activities in 2003 of the Cseber Ltd. founded after the publication in May 2002 of the government decree on the recollection of contaminated plant protection wastes, as well as on the company’s plans for 2004.
Written anno… (Dr. Péter Inczédy)