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Agroforum 2004 October

The current state of Hungarian agriculture
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
Hungarian agriculture has radically changed during the past sixty years. However, development was not constant and not going in the same direction, therefore today the economic level of the country is falling behind that of the developed countries. As after the EU accession the new members manage their production under much adverse circumstances as the former ones, there is no chance to rapidly decrease this drawback under the current economic conditions. A major change may be achieved only by the significant modification of the current farm management conditions. However, it is to be discussed what should be the direction of the referred “modifications”, i.e. what does the “development” of our agriculture mean, the structure of the properties and the production in terms of the machinery, etc, and how can filling the gaps be financed. The author is seeking the answers to the questions in this article.

Note for farmers. About the Operative Programme of Agriculture and Rural Development
(Miklós Kurucz)
In addition to the ideas about how to improve competitiveness of producing agricultural products and of food industry, the Programme contains rural development objectives. The article provides detailed information on it.

CEREAL PRODUCTION

The main trends of wheat and maize growing in the Hungarian and international markets
(Dr. Hajnalka Hingyi)
The author, working in the Agricultural Research Institute, provides a detailed summary of the international prospects of wheat and maize production supported by data and outlines the conditions of growing in Hungary. Readers may get to know how the Hungarian and global prices have changed, and the expected profitability of wheat and maize growing was analysed also for agricultural companies.

Practical information about cereal intervention
(Dr. Béla Kováts, László Pálvölgyi)
There are only a few weeks till starting the first EU cereal intervention. Cereals may be offered for intervention buying in the European Union from 1 November. The EU system of cereal and rice intervention entered into force on the day of EU accession also in Hungary, but no cereals were offered in the intervention period from 1 to 31 May 2004 due to the high market prices. In 2004 the volume of the cereals produced in Hungary was higher than ever before, that is a big challenge for the stakeholders. The warehousing of the 16 million tons of cereals itself requires a stepped-up and well-organized work. The next intervention period for cereals starts on 1 November and lasts until 31 May 2005. During this period any owner of wheat, durum wheat, barley, maize and sorghum commodities, if his product originates in the Community, is a no-load one and meets the minimum quantity and quality requirements, may offer it for intervention. The calculation of the purchase price is based on the intervention basic price of 101.31 euros/ton.

Evaluation of winter wheat varieties of Kompolt
(Dr. István Geczki, Sándor Kása)
The authors wish to present the values, diversity of the characteristics and adaptability of winter wheat varieties qualified as a result of wheat breeding and introduction carried out in the research institute in Kompolt integrated in the “Károly Róbert” College. They give an account of meteorological conditions of the past few years and compare them with the yield data of the particular varieties.

Wheat breeding in Karcag
(Dr. Fazekas Miklós)
One third part of Hungary’s 1.2 million hectare wheat growing area is on sites of adverse natural conditions. The intensive varieties cannot tolerate the unfavourable agro-ecological conditions. Due to its geographical place, Karcag is on one of the driest areas of the country. The climatic and soil conditions are equally suitable for producing cereals resisting abiotic stresses. The investigations of the author and his colleagues aim at breeding such cold and drought resistant wheat varieties that better tolerate soil and air drought in spring and summer, so frequent in the Great Plain, high temperature and can be successfully grown also under adverse conditions. Six winter wheat varieties have been registered so far. The Research Centre at Karcag of the Agricultural Centre of the Debrecen University makes efforts to produce intensive wheat varieties reaching the quality of that of the legendary ‘Bankút’ to allow us using Hungary’s comparative advantage on the EU market.

The results of resistance trials carried out in 2004 with registered wheat varieties
(Péter Hertelendy, Zsuzsanna Birta Vas)
The authors, working for the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control, let Readers an insight in the results for 2004 of studies with resistance to the diseases of the major registered wheat varieties. The yields obtained with the particular varieties are tabulated, shown for the maturity groups. These data may help growers to pay more attention to crop safety when choosing the varieties.

Seed treatment products for winter cereals (2004)
(Ágoston Tóth)
At the beginning of the time of sowing in autumn, the specialist of the Central Service for Plant Protection and Soil Conservation gives a tabulated list of products registered for seed treatment of winter wheat and barley.

Record wheat yields encumber sales
(Zoltán Nagy)
The first buying up in the European Union was preceded by an expectation never experienced before. Of course, it was related to the high yields foreseen well in advance and the hope to manage it smoothly. Today it can be concluded that growers were very much disappointed. They even do not enjoy the confidence of the society either, because it seems that, in spite of the high yields, they complain. However, the real situation is rather complex, like an equation with various unknown quantities. The author tries to solve this equation by analysing the Hungarian situation and possibilities.

Quality wheat required by baking industry
(József Werli)
The first part of the article deals with the trends in bread and flour consumption in Hungary. The author refers to that baking industry uses 67-68 % of the flour produced by the milling industry, therefore it is its major user. Furthermore he stresses that the volume, choice and especially the quality of the available flour are essential for the baking industry. The quality parameters of flour are less likely to be influenced during milling, therefore it is mainly determined by wheat quality. Finally, detailed information is given on the flour quality in Hungary and it also turns out what are the quality requirements of baking industry for flour.

Seen heard, read. Cereal Forum in Bábolna
(Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
In the frame of the International Farming Days in Bábolna, IKR Co. organized a Cereal Forum titled „Increasing the competitiveness of the wheat sector by harmonizing the activity of the participants of the production chain” on 9 September 2004. This article reports on the most important ideas expressed and presentations delivered on the event.

Seen heard, read. Days of the Profession in the Cereal Research Institute, Szeged
(Attila Kosztolányi)
The 80 years old Cereal Research Non-profit Company, the Society of Agricultural Science of County Csongrád and the Agricultural Office of County Csongrád organised a National technical meeting on maize, fodder sorghum and broomcorn and a related variety show in Szeged on 31 August and 1 September. The national situation of growing maize, fodder sorghum and broomcorn, as well as the breeding and research in the production of the crops were outlined in the lectures. The article reflects the most important information heard and seen on the spot.

PRODUCTION OF OTHER FIELD CROPS

Does growing of maize in monoculture involve a risk also in 2005?
(Dr. Kálmán Szeőke, Béla Tóth, László Vasas, Dr. Géza Vörös)
As it is known, western corn rootworm caused severe damages in certain parts of the country, especially in the southern counties in the past two years. Professionals and specialists were looking forward also to this year, but fortunately producers have not encountered really big losses. In order to better inform growers before starting the sowing period in autumn, we asked entomologists familiar with issues related to western corn rootworm about how to prepare for the next year? Is it reasonable to sow maize next spring in this season’s maize fields without running the risk of root injury or not? And if yes, under what conditions and when cannot it be recommended at all? Being aware of the infestation situation and intending to carry out the feasible solutions for treatment, where can maize be grown again, monoculture, followed for economic reasons? Read the article to know the answers!

Interviewed… Dr. Géza Vörös about maize pests in the current season
(Zsuzsanna Györök)
We asked Dr. Géza Vörös, entomologist and the deputy director of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Tolna, how maize pests behave under the current meteorological conditions and what kinds of damages may be foreseen for 2004?

Thoughts about a meeting. Recent dilemmas of maize growing
(Péter Rózsavölgyi)
Being a member of the European Union, among other problems, the biggest challenge for Hungary is to solve agricultural problems at national, regional and local levels. In addition to the continuously decreasing difference between inputs and yields as outputs, difficulties in sales and fierce competition, maize growers are mostly interested in the issues related to western corn rootworm. In 2003 the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations launched a project in Central Europe that set the primary goal of implementing a long-term integrated programme to control western corn rootworm. The representatives of the seven participating countries held a technical meeting with the FAO experts and certain internationally recognized specialists in the frame of the project to discuss the general principles of the integrated control against western corn rootworm and other maize pests. The author shares his experience obtained in the meeting with readers.

This is the way they do … Interview with Tivadar Lánci about rape growing
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We are seeking the secret of successful rape growing with Tivadar Lánci, the production manager of Naszályvölgye Cooperative at Nőtincs where outstanding yields were achieved.

Seen heard, read. The secrets of successful rape growing
(Attila Kosztolányi)
What is the trick of good rape growing? The answer to this question was sought at the round-table discussion titled “Records and record-holders in rapes” organized by the Szekszárd Plant Protection Ltd. in Szekszárd on 11 August. The representatives of manufacturing and trading companies and growers from various counties shared their experience about the issues of choosing varieties/hybrids, tillage, sowing, cultural operation, the protection of rapes from the seed treatment to harvesting and of the harvest.

So that also rapes could bear … (x)
(István Rikk)
What are the means to make rape growing safer? Let’s read the recommendations of Bayer CropScience.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Interviewed… Which will be the novel features of the new FENDT tractors from 2005 on?
(Dr. György Demes)
FENDT, a member of the AGCO group showed its novelties and whole product range connected to the annual national field show called „FENDT Feldtag” organized for entrepreneurs and farmers also this year. Hundred and thirty journalist of professional journals were invited to the agricultural area around Gaibach near to Würzburg. After the exhibition, we interviewed Zsolt Harsányi, the director of AXIÁL Ltd, the Hungarian distributor of FENDT tractors, about the manufacturing programme for 2005, the changes to be introduced from this autumn in the FENDT tractors and the importance of the new developments for the practice.

The machines of tillage, planting and nutrient supply in the field show organised by KITE
(Dr. György Demes)
A report illustrated with colour pictures about the field show of machines organized by KITE Co.

Väderstad clinic. „Remaining in the competition calls for operating the most up-to-date machines” (x)
The advantages of Väderstad implements are described through the experience of the Utód-Agró Ltd.

Massey Ferguson 5400 – universal and all-knowing tractors in the category of 75-120 LE (x)
The distributor, Raiffeisen Agrohouse Ltd. reveals why it is worthy selecting the models of the series 5400 of Massey Ferguson.

Under the magnifying glass…(28.) KLEINE SF 10 mobile sugarbeet harvester
(Dr. József Fűzy, Győző Mészáros)
KLEINE SF 10 sugarbeet harvester is mobile, one-pass, 6-row, designed for row distance of 45/50 cm, with collecting container, the improved version of the former machine of the same model. A 6-cylinder VOLVO Penta diesel engine ensures hydrostatic drive of the running gear. The article informs on the results of testing the harvester.

Under the magnifying glass …(29.) BIG SUPPORT collecting-reloading trailer for beet transporting
(Dr. József Fűzy, Győző Mészáros)
The Italian F. LLI Bassi BIG-SUPPORT trailer serves for receiving beet roots collected in the container of the mobile sugarbeet harvesters, transporting to the field edges, as well as for loading in stacks at field edges or reloading to certain transporters. The article gives an account of the results of testing the working quality, performance and operating parameters of the trailer.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Seen heard, read. Crop safety in the field
(Attila Kosztolányi)
KITE Co. organized a large-scale field show titled “Crop safety in the field” at Túrkeve on 25- 26 August. The up-to-date and cost-efficient tillage systems, the related machines, drills and operations performed with them were presented. The participants could get to know the maize and sunflower varieties recommended by KITE Co. and they could be informed on response to nutrients at the particular nutrient levels. See the photos illustrating the report.

The experience of recollecting wastes contaminated with plant protection products in the first part of 2004 (x)
(Péter Lantos)
Péter Lantos, the managing director of CSEBER non-profit company lets us know how the system of recollecting the wastes contaminated with plant protection products is operated. The detailed results of the recollection campaign conducted in the first part of 2004 are shown in tables. Their future plans provide useful information.

CHRONICLE

International Farmers’ Days have successfully ended
The history of the International Farmers’ Days at Bábolna began in 1977. The host of the exhibition and fair is the National Ménesbirtok Ltd. founded to take care of the traditions of Bábolna, together with the co-organizers, the Bábolna Food Industry Co. and the IKR Co. did their best so that the exhibitors and visitors could leave Bábolna with good impressions. On the exhibition held on net 12 thousand square meters, most of the 262 exhibitors showed crop production machines, products and the related technology. Almost 40 thousand professionals and more than 35 thousand visitors were present in the International Farmers’ Days at Bábolna between 8 and 11 September.

Seen heard, read. Department of Gyöngyös College placed out to Martonvásár
The Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár and the Agricultural Faculty of the “Károly Róbert” College signed a cooperation agreement on 31 August 2004 about establishing a placed out department. The College of Gyöngyös establishes a Placed out Department of Agronomy to help scientific education and improve objective conditions of extension work in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In terms of the agreement, the researchers of the placed out department undertake to develop the methodology of investigation, help education in their field, as well as take part in the education and demonstration organized in the frame of the post-gradual and adult education.

Seen heard, read. Blessing to produces in Győr
(Gyula Kettinger)
This year has brought rich crops – growers thanked God for it during the late-summer blessing to produces in Győr. The agricultural results of Győr-Moson-Sporon county have ranked among the best ones for a long time. Visitors could get a picture about it in the horticultural, flower and produce show organized on 30 August 2004 for the 12th time.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)
Do you know what used to be the trick of making good bread? If not, read the article of Péter Inczédy to get to know the details.