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Agroforum 2005 April

MAIZE GROWING

Changing weed control in maize
(Ferenc Molnár)
As a consequence of Hungary’s accession to the EU, various active substances (e.g. the most frequently used atrazine) were withdrawn due to their adverse physiological effect. More up-to-date, environmentally friendly active substances are needed to replace them. The author studied herbicides and mixtures of herbicides recently placed on the market and meeting the above requirements in sweetcorn. He informs on the phytotoxicity of the active substances applied in different modes (presowing /ppi/, pre-emergence, early postemergence and postemergence) in different varieties, summarised in tables.

We asked the processing company …
(AF)
We asked the following questions from the professional of the Békéscsaba Refrigerating Co., Mr József Sztanek: “How long have you been dealing with the quick-freezing of sweetcorn?, Which are the varieties that you prefer for contracted growing?, What were the characteristics of the season in 2004?, What kinds of problems did you encounter in plant protection? What are the impacts of the increased quality requirements on the refrigerating industry?

The efficacy of herbicides in maize, depending on the timing of application
(László Szabó, István Dávid)
As it is known, the success of weed control is jointly determined by the used herbicide and the mode of its application. The authors studied the efficacy of 10 mixtures of herbicides against certain hard-to-control weeds in maize. They established a large-plot trial with two application dates in two replicates in calcareous chernozem soil on the area Debrecen–Látókép (in the great Plain, eastern Hungary) in 2004. The dominant weeds, thorn-apple (Datura stramonium) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), were responsible for 94-95 % of the total area infested with weeds. The efficacy of the herbicides was assessed at two dates, the tabulated results are shown.

Experience of controlling cotton bollworm in sweetcorn
(László Vasas, István Zöldi)
The authors believe that cotton bollworm is not a pest that cannot be controlled. Good timing, as well as the monitoring of the flight and larval emergence are of vital importance. The classical method (treatment at the flight peak and 10-14 days after it) is not feasible for this pest. When the number of adults increases, the product shall already be on the plant so that the emerging larvae may get in contact with it. The authors think that the appropriate application technique and the efficient treatment of the ear-zone are also a key factor.

Invite – a biological weapon against western corn rootworm
(Sándor Boros)
It recommends growers that they use INVITE-DIABRO, the “biological weapon” of Biomark Trading Co. against western corn rootworm in 2005.

Variety describing trials with sweetcorn at the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control
(Ferenc Kovács)
The author briefly outlines Hungary’s position in sweetcorn growing, last year’s difficulties in trading, the reasons of loosing markets and the grown varieties. In 2004 the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control established a variety trial with 19 normally sweet and 7 super-sweet varieties where the season-length, the characteristics of the plant and the ears, as well as the productivity were evaluated in relation with the weather conditions. The author informs on the above parameters and the results of tasting for each variety that may be very helpful for growers in deciding which variety to produce.

Sweetcorn growing in the fields of Szarvas Agro Co.
(József Zana)
The author presents sweetcorn growing of Szarvas Agro Co. showing their production under the conditions of two extreme years, the dry and warm 2003 and the rainy and cool 2004. He informs on the soil conditions of the site, its impact on production, the grown varieties, the possibilities for nutrient supply, pest management, the modes of application and their costs. He describes the weeds and the most important pests present in the area, the applied pesticides, also indicating the optimum time for their control.

Experience of growing sweetcorn in Nagyszénás
(Mihály Temesvári, László Borbély)
The article gives an account of the experience of FIVE + ONE Ltd. in growing sweetcorn. The company follows the strict quality assurance rules of Bounduelle Nagykőrös Ltd. They take them into consideration when choosing the variety, carry out soil treatment, sow the seeds, irrigate, supply nutrients, perform cultural operations and do pest management. The give a detailed description of controlling cotton bollworm based on forecasting with sex-pheromone traps, the applied insecticides that are useful also against other pests and of the weed control programme.

WHEAT GROWING

National survey for ear blight of winter wheat in 2004
(Dr. György Kis, Ágoston Tóth)
Fusarium fungi are the causal agents of the most severe diseases of cereals. The greatest injury is provoked by ear blight, leading to significant losses in crop quality and quantity. Last year, examining ear samples taken in 551 wheat fields, the plant protection services recorded a level of infection (9,24 %) much higher than in the previous year. Severity of seed infection was very variable; it was in the range of 1.50 and 25.46%. The authors believe that this heterogeneity is caused by the weather conditions and the drastic decrease in disease control. They recommend growers to provide a preventive control with appropriate technique for cereals if the conditions favouring to the disease exist. The efficient fungicides registered for use are also outlined.

Ear blight in county Békés between 2002 and 2004
(Éva Csenky)
The article discusses the biology of the Fusarium species affecting winter wheat and the environmental conditions assisting their incidence. The Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Békés has regularly been determining level of internal seed infection for years because of the yield loss and toxin production caused by the disease. The paper outlines its method, the incidence of ear blight and the modes of its control.

Seed growing in winter wheat and seed certification in counties Békés and Csongrád in 2003-2004
(György Hankó)
Readers may get acquainted with the experience of field inspections carried out in winter wheat grown for seed in 2003-2004 and the results of seed certification in the light of the different weather conditions of the two years. The author analyses the causes of sales problems, the share of the grown varieties in counties Békés and Csongrád where, in spite of the increasing number of varieties, the ones bred in Hungary are dominant.

Sfera and Falcon, a good match for protecting cereals
(Ferenc Dúcz, László Farády)
Bayer CropScience informs on the efficacy of control by using its fungicides, Falcon and Sfera against the diseases threatening cereals.

Cereal intervention – how to go on?
(Dr. László Rieger, Zsuzsanna Jancsok, Norbert Kató)
As in an EU member state, it is possible to take part in cereal intervention also in Hungary. The authors outline the key points and objectives of intervention, the position of the domestic cereal industry in the light of 2004 year’s record yields. In their opinion the acceptance is rather slow. Its reasons are the high volume of the produce offered in the country, the lack of practice and stores designated for intervention and the substandard conditions of the majority of the existing storage facilities. The authors recommend revision of the implementation of intervention in Hungary. They believe that the problems can be mitigated by decreasing the intervention commodity stocks, increasing the livestock and building storehouses in the country assisted by investment supports.

TOMATO GROWING

Last years’ conclusions of growing tomatoes in trellis system
(András Szkaliczki)
The author has a good overview and long experience in growing tomatoes for processing industry and for fresh market, using trellis system. He gives an account of the problems that have recently afflicted growers. He informs on the troubles caused by weather when the fruits harvested with delay due to cool temperatures accumulated at the acceptance, on the constraints of irrigation and the risks of plant protection. The article gives an account of the worsening economic conditions that decrease intention for growing, the consequence of the invasion of foreign goods knocking down prices, the higher and higher inputs and the less and less incomes, while the efficient protection of Hungarian growers is lacking.

Thoughts about tomato growing
(István Földesi)
The author writes about the implementation of a new tomato management programme taken place after changing the ownership of the canning factory in county Békés and the marketing issues. He gives a detailed account of the key elements of tomato production intended for mechanical harvesting: tillage, transplanting or direct seeding. The questions addressed are: choosing the varieties and the possibilities for nutrient supply, plant protection, irrigation, harvesting and transporting in a cost-saving way at optimum times and in good quality.

Greenhouse growing of tomatoes from the point of view of a grower
(Zoltán Majsai, Tamás Csizmadia)
The article presents a family farm with intensive growing of greenhouse tomatoes following integrated plant protection. They control pests with predators and parasitoids, while they apply products allowed in the programme against diseases. The sales issues, the consequences of competition, changing market situation and the problems caused by 2004 year’s climatic conditions are discussed in details. The special troubles of greenhouse growing and their solutions are also dealt with and the future of the sector is briefly summarised.

Experience of growing tomatoes for processing
(László Zsilinszky, Annamária Ladó)
The authors inform on an up-to-date tomato growing system for processing, established on the excellent site conditions of the south-western part of Hungary. Crop management is in compliance with the requirements of the quality assurance system and of the canning factory. The varieties that can be successfully grown in the region are selected based on a farm variety trial. The article analyses the most important elements of the crop management programme affecting crop quality and quantity and 2004 year’s problems in nutrient supply, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting, transporting and classification.

Efficient and environmentally friendly control of thrips = SpinTor 480 (x)
(Mihály Bujdosó)
The article informs on the direct and indirect damages of thrips species causing so severe a problem. The author recommends growers the product of Dow AgroSciences to solve it: SpinTor 480, a natural-based, environmentally friendly, wide-spectrum preparation.

MELON GROWING

Pest management in melons
(Mónika Kovács)
County Békés on the south-western part of Hungary plays an important part in the production of the traditionally good-quality water melon. The crop is an important export commodity and the production area is continuously increasing. The author informs on the major diseases of the plant (those of physiological nature and the ones caused by viruses, bacteria and fungi) and its pests (nematodes, soil-insects, aphids, spider-mites, thrips, ants and games). He describes the symptoms and damages caused by them and their ecological requirements. The pesticides registered for their control applied alone or in mixtures, as well as the optimum timing of application are also outlined. Weed control options are not missing either.

This is the way I grow melons!
(Győző Oláh)
Read the article to know about the successful melon management programme with special emphasis on a new method, the grafting of the crop. It informs on the suitable rootstocks, the different grafting techniques, as well as on the advantages and the disadvantage of growing grafted plants. The author draws the attention to plant protection problems to be solved in due time and to market requirements.

Melon growing in the southern part of county Békés
(László Lipták)
The loess land in the southern part of county Békés with its excellent soils and easily accessible irrigation water make the region one of the main districts of horticultural, and within that, melon production. In the past few years, growing under plastic tunnels have become the most characteristic in the area in order to achieve early harvesting. The author gives an account of the elements of the crop management programme: selecting the variety, growing the young plants, soil preparation, soil-nutrient supply, planting, irrigation, covering with plastic foil). It is followed by outlining the problems of sales and the competition among the EU member states. Finally, the trends in meeting West-European requirements are also dealt with.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Briefly about the organisation in County Békés of the Chamber
(Dr. Zoltán Szabó)
The article lets us know the activity, cooperation with different institutes and contacts of the organisation in County Békés of the Hungarian Chamber of Plant Protection Professionals and Doctors of Plant Medicine.

DNV introduced a Hungarian-language auditing in EUREPGAP. Press release
The communiqué informs on the introduction of the Hungarian-language EUREPGAP. Its certificate guarantees that the supplier of a horticultural product satisfies the food safety requirements, facilitating market access of its producer. DNV, introducing EUREPGAP, is an independent foundation with headquarters in Oslo. Its name represents commitment to the environment and quality.

With traditions into the future (x)
The article presents the products of VOGEL & NOOT company: TerraMix grubber, TerraFlex cultivator, TerraCult exact cultivator, TerraLift carrier, TerraDisc disk and TerraPak cylinder.

Seen, heard, read. VÄDERSTAD-meeting with partners at the beginning of the season
(Dr. György Demes)
The ones who were present on the season-opening meeting organised by VÄDERSTAD Ltd. could get to know its globally recognised machines the novelties. The manager of the company, Mr Tibor Kalmár outlined the success and results achieved in Hungary and gave detailed information on Topdown multicultivator. Dr. Márta Birkás, a university professor called the attention to the importance of “adaptation” for mitigating adverse climatic effects. Mr. István Jancsó, the manager of the Abaúj Charolais Agricultural Co. expressed his opinion about the soil cultivation implements of VÄDERSTAD from practical points of view.

Copper or gold? (x)
(Dr. Anikó Antal)
The article informs on Hungarian Kwizda’s crop-tailored programme called “Supplying nutrients and protecting” in particular, on the importance of copper as an essential microelement for plants.

Thoughts on the occasion of Fruit Logistica 2005 organised in Berlin
(A. O.)
We can get an inside view of a major fresh market fair of the world “Fruit Logistica” through the article.

GrowHow topicalities (x)
Kemira company’s fertilizer offer for field crops is shown.

NK sunflower hybrids as bee forages (x)
(Edit Zajácz, Dr. Enikő Szalai Mátray, Dr. Tamás Szalai, János Bíró)
The authors carried out a trial to study the particular NK sunflower hybrids, Alexandra PR, Arena PR, NK Brio, Pedro PR and Pixel PR as bee forages. They focused on the nectar production of flowers and the sugar content of the nectar.

Note for growers. About technical requirements laid down in the legislation
(Miklós Kurucz)
This note gives a brief interpretation of the two issues of the Ministerial Decree 4/2004 (I. 13.)FVM, the conditions of the frequently mentioned but often mixed up terms of “Good Agricultural and Environmental State” and “Good Agricultural Practice”. The specified requirements shall be met in order to obtain the agricultural and rural subsidies of the European Union.

Conditions of using property and land
The main indices of Hungarian agriculture are shown in the abstract of the study prepared by the Central Statistical Office on behalf of the Hungarian Society of Agricultural Sciences.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)