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Agroforum 2005 January

PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF FRUIT CROPS

Overview of pests and diseases in 2004 (2) Orchards
(Miklós Tóth, Sándor Kobza, Gábor Szalkai)
The authors give an account of the temperature and rainfall data of 2004 (comparing them with those of 2003), as well as their effect on fruit pests and diseases. Population density and damages of the pests (fall webworm moth, summer fruit twist, leaf miner moths, aphids, spider mites, pear psylla, fruit moths, cherry fruit fly,) were lower due to the cool and rainy weather conditions. The article calls the attention to the fact that during the long and warm autumn, the number of pest individuals increased, therefore the overwintering population may pose a high risk of damage by all the mentioned species the next season. The incidence and severity of fruit tree diseases such as brown rot, scab, powdery mildew, leaf curl, shot hole disease, red leaf blotch were continuously high throughout the year because of the prevailing ecological conditions. The authors are convinced that the reasonable treatment programmes based on forecasting of the diseases may be successful even in such extreme years.

Can frost damages be mitigated in orchards?
(Dr. László Szalay)
Because of the extremely variable weather conditions in Hungary, injuries caused by low temperature stress can be slightly eliminated. Growers need to know more about the requirements of the crops, their stress tolerance and the environmental conditions of the production site. The parts of the tree the most exposed to frost damage are reproductive organs. The author studied frost resistance of flower buds of peach species and of generative organs of apricot species by deep-freezing experiments. He concluded that the bases of a successful control of frost damages are: selecting the proper production site, professionally implementing the crop management programme and working out a frost control system in order to increase safety of growing in intensive orchards.

Current trends in developing intensive apple growing systems
(Krisztina Csigai, Dr. Károly Hrotkó, Lajos Magyar)
The objectives of growing in intensive orchards are to quickly come into bearing, to form the production surface of the trees the earliest possible and to achieve high volume of good quality crop at lower production costs. The authors inform on the production systems in order to carry them into effect (shaping the crown, distances between and within the rows, trellis system, irrigation and nutrient supply). They present the crown forms used in intensive orchards, the way of creating them and the advantages and disadvantages of the particular crown forms.

Experiences and lessons learned from apple protection in 2004
(Dr. Mária Molnár, Zoltán Simon)
The entomologist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of county Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg gives an account of the occurrence of apple pests in 2004 in the light of the ecological conditions. She concludes that the rainy spring and early summer slowed down the increase of populations and mitigated the caused damages of spider mites and leaf mites. The beneficial predatory mites and Stethorus punctillum (the population density of which increased the previous season given the abundance of mites in several orchards), “managed” the control of overwintering stages of pests. The first author continues with the importance of duly timed treatments against rosy apple aphid. She calls the attention to the role of cultural operations and late-winter wash-off spraying in the control of San José scale. Furthermore, she outlines the life cycle and forecasting of leafroller and leafminer moths in 2004. She recommends growers to use sex-pheromone traps more extensively. Dealing also with the increase of population density of cockchafers and shot-hole borers, she emphasizes the role of working out their environmentally friendly control. The second author, the phytopathologist of the Service analyses the results of the county’s apple growing from the point of view of diseases. The past season, cooler and rainier than many years’ average, was not favourable for the onset of infection by Erwinia amylovora. Disease control focused on scab. The author discusses the issues of infections at the different growth stages of the crop, the time of symptom appearance and the development of epidemics. Finally he summarises the lessons learned in 2004 and gives a model for next year’s disease management programme.

Study. Recent experiences in forecasting fireblight infection
(Dr. Tamás Bubán, Dr. László Dorgai, Zoltán Bay)
The authors discuss the possibilities of forecasting the infection by Erwinia amylovora, as well as the operation, importance and efficacy of the country-wide observation and forecasting system “Maryblyt”. They believe that good results can be achieved by using the three methods described in the article (measuring infection pressure, stigma imprint technique and mean temperature forecasting line). It means that there is a positive correlation between the forecasted infection risk and the subsequent level of infection, especially if risks involved both by environmental factors and the presence of the pathogen are taken into consideration.

Brown rot of stone fruits in the light of recent years’ experience
(Dr. Zsuzsanna Rozsnyay)
The author describes the injuries provoked by the fungi Monilia fructigena and M. laxa causing epidemics on stone fruits in the past 15 years. She informs on their geographical distribution epidemics, biology, damages, host plants and the mode of infection. She also discusses the ecological needs, epidemiology and the magnitude of losses. In her opinion stone fruit crops are also susceptible to these diseases, therefore the breeding of resistant cultivars would be very important. She recommends to jointly apply cultural, mechanical and chemical methods for the successful control.

Regular preventive treatments to control brown rot of sour cherries
(Gábor Mező, Ágnes Schweigert)
The authors recommend techniques for the control of brown rot of stone fruits annually affecting sour cherries throughout the country. They believe that the disease can be successfully managed if we are aware of the biology of the pathogen and do our best not to let it in our orchard. Therefore, the proper selection of the production site and professional pruning are important. Furthermore, wash-off spraying in autumn and spring followed by the targeted treatments in the season also have a significant role. They call the attention to the changes that need to be taken into consideration when using the chemicals (pesticide residues and pre-harvest interval).

Observing flight of cherry fruit fly and the causes of its damage
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt)
Among pests of sweet and sour cherries, cherry fruit fly is the insect causing the most problems. In many cases exporting fails because infestation on fruits becomes conspicuous. The best means of observing flight of cherry fruit flies are greenish-yellow traps equipped with feeding attractants. Studying infestation level on sweet and sour cherry cultivars, taking the beginning of the flight, maturation feeding and embryonic development into account, we concluded that in 2004 each cultivar ripening after 9 June was attacked. The infested fruits remaining on the trees after harvesting significantly influences damages caused the next year.

Vegetables and fruits – obstacles and prospects after the EU accession
(József Szabó)
The author evaluates Hungary’s first year in the EU in the field of producing and marketing vegetables and fruits. He states that fairly good yields were harvested in both sectors in the country. Though yields were not high in Europe, growers faced sales problems and depressed prices. He explains the situation by the concentration of trade organisations, the increasing requirements for quality and packaging, furthermore by supply from non-EU member countries. The uneven level of production and preparation of commodities for the market are a further problem. The author believes that the solution can be the increase of irrigated horticultural areas and continuous presence in the market. The volume of produces deriving from environmentally friendly, organic and integrated production systems need to be increased. He calls for the establishment of an agro-bank that undertakes state guarantee until the consolidation of the farm.

Market requirements – possibilities of apricot breeding
(Dr. Andrzej Pedryc, Dr. Róbert Lux, Rita Hermán)
The authors outline the characteristics and changes of the Hungarian apricot growing. Crop volume highly varies that can be eliminated by growing apricot in safer production sites. Consumption behaviour changes: in addition to quantity, buyers come out also with quality requirements. In order to improve quality and to extend crop season, promising early, late and very late cultivars are being bred in the Department of Genetics and crop Production of the Budapest Corvinus University. Breeders need to be aware also of market demands, furthermore of the crop safety and economic issues important for growers. The article informs on the objectives of apricot breeding in the university: extending ripening season, improving quality parameters, transferability, keeping quality and frost resistance, as well as solving the problem of self-fertility.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Under the magnifying glass …(32) KERTITOX BORA 1000 orchard sprayer
(Dr. György Dimitrievics)
KERTITOX BÓRA 1000 orchard sprayer is driven by a tractor via a TLT-shaft. The implement can be remotely operated from the seat of the tractor cab. At the backside of the chassis there is a one-stage axial fan with the bows placed in the outlets. During spraying, the pump supplies, at the preset pressure, the spray from the tank through the suction and pressure filters to the nozzles that apply and spray it. The article gives a detailed description of the results of testing working quality, output and operation parameters.

Structure of fertilizer broadcasters (2) Mounted spinning fertilizer distributors
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
The 1970s and 80s were great years for the development of spinning fertilizer distributors. Success was achieved mainly in reducing the unevenness of distribution. In addition, working width of the implements gradually increased. As a result of striving for higher working width, by the turn of the century machines were released first with 26-28 m, later with 36-48 m. The author informs about the structure of the mounted spinning fertilizer distributors in details and the effect of the structural parts on the working width and unevenness of distribution of the implements.

Priority partners of the AMI Hungary Ltd visit Linz factory (x)
AMI Hungary Ltd. organised a visit to the Linz factory for the 70 most important customers of its nine Hungarian company seats. The participants could see the whole process of the fertilizer production in this advanced-level factory.

Seen, heard, read. AQUEEL roller, a new implement for water conservation tillage (x)
SIMBA International Ltd. introduces its new implement for water conservation tillage: AQUEEL roller.

Massey Ferguson introduced new tractor and combine models on the market
(Dr. György Demes)
Having revised its complete tractor programme within less than two years, Massey Ferguson, belonging to the AGCO group appeared on the European market with 40 new tractor models in the output range of 32-315 LE and with five versions of two heavy-duty combines. It was announced on an international press conference held in Copenhagen on 5 November. Readers may be informed about the novelties presented in the conference.

A novelty by HORSCH, a pneumatic Airseeder (x)
The article outlines the advantages of using the new-generation Airseeder cultivator allowing one-pass seedbed preparation, seeding and fertilizer application.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Gelara, a visible weed control (x)
(István Szabó)
Dow AgroSciences informs on the benefits for rape growers of the new clopyralid + picloram herbicide distributed by that company.

Relation of agricultural economy and the media
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)
The “Nagyváthy János Farmers’ Training Association held its season-closing event in Martonvásár. The discussion was opened by the president, dr. György Bálint with his lecture titled “The relation of agro-economy and the media”. Read the report to know more about it.

What is the field where the French are superior to us?
(Dr. István Csíbor)
Invited by Bayer CropSciense, Szekszárd Plant Protection Ltd. organised a study tour for 21 professionals to look around Lyon and get acquainted with French agriculture, so important in the European Union in the middle of September 2004. The author shares his own experience obtained in the study-tour with Readers.

Seen, heard, read. Energy-saving conservation tillage
(Dr. Gyula Kettinger)
The article gives an account of the lecture of the professor of the Gödöllő Szent István University, Dr. Márta Birkás delivered in the Agricultural Faculty in Mosonmagyaróvár of the West-Hungarian University on 29 November 2004.

Let’s plan pest and disease control (x)
(Csaba Csorba)
A new and promising seed-dressing product released by Bayer CropScience.

Thoughts for opening the season with GrowHow (x)
(Dr. Erik Czinege)
The overall experience of 2004 can be read in the beginning of 2005 from the point of view of Kemira.

Seen, heard, read. BASF customers’ meeting in the spirit of renewal
(Dr. György Demes)
The Agro-Division of BASF Hungaria Ltd. invited its trading partners to a reception completed with a technical meeting on 12 November that took place in the spirit of renewing the image and products of BASF. The technical programme began with the lecture of dr. Gábor Rekettye, the professor and head of department of the Pécs University, titled “Price calculation and its effects” about the impacts of the different types of calculating the prices on the operators of the market and the profitability of their activity. Gábor Méhn, the head of the Agro-Division of BASF gave an account of the results of the company and the pesticide market in 2004.

Contribution to the strobilurins
(Dr. István Füzi)
In its previous number (Volume 15, 12) Practical Agrofórum published an article titled “Experiences and conclusions in the protection of grapes in 2004”. The main title covered three topics where strobilurins, playing an important part in grapevine protection, came up at various places. However, it remained in a generalities, therefore now the author provides useful information about this relatively new group of pesticides.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)

Annex: Thematic table of contents of volume 15 of Practical AGROFÓRUM (2004)