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Agroforum 2005 July

Before harvesting
(Dr. László Bódis)

GROWING OF OILSEED CROPS

Future prospects of rape growing, with special attention to the increasing requirements of food and biodiesel industries
(Zoltán Blum)
In the European Union the cropping area of rapes has increased in the past four years due to the higher yields and improving profitability. The author informs on the global market situation of the crop, supported by statistical data, production and rapeseed oil demand for food and biodiesel use in the major rape growing countries. He also informs on soyabean and palm oil production, as oilseed crop prices are mainly influenced by these two crops. At the end of the article an outlook for European rape growing is given. The future prospects are favourable, however, the increasing global oil demand will be a big challenge for growers.

Hybrid rapes in Europe and Hungary
(Zoltán Blum)
Rape has become the third in the rank of global plant-oil production in the last few decades. It can be attributed, among them, to the two major achievements in rape breeding: the eruca acid and glucosinolate content of rapes has considerably decreased. After reaching 00-quality, breeders have focused on increasing yields that has involved the appearance of hybrids. The article discusses hybrid systems (ogura-cms- and MSL-system) and the importance of the particular hybrid types, and the share of hybrids in the cropping area of certain countries is outlined in a tabulated form. The author summarises all the advantages that contributed to the increased proportion of hybrids compared to varieties in rape growing.

Winter rape in Hungarian commercial growing
(Zoltán Nagy)
The paper reveals the defenceless situation of Hungarian rape growers in the global market. The West-European oil mills, concentrated in the hands of only a few owners, take advantage of their monopolistic position and try to make market depend on the current conditions and results of production. By this, they provoke a rather big uncertainty in countries with lower crop volumes. The author attributes the decrease of Hungarian cropping area, the lower level of the crop management programmes and the rather modest use of rape hybrids to marketing uncertainties, shortage of capital and the high production costs. In spite of all these, he is convinced that rape has its role by all means in Hungarian field crop growing (e.g. an excellent preceding for cereals). However, a stable production volume together with a fairly good crop safety should be established, as more stable prices and better transporting conditions could be expected only in such a case. The author believes that launching the biodiesel programme would give a great impetus to Hungarian rape growing.

Germany, France and Hungary – biodiesel programmes in the pipeline
(Compiled by Gyula Kettinger, Éva Kettinger)
Industrial production and use of biodiesel began only in the last decades of the 20th century. The biodiesel programme, got stuck a few years ago, has been put on the agenda again in Hungary. Germany and France plan to reach 5.75 % for the joint share of biodiesel and bio-alcohol in total fuel consumption by 2010, while the scheduled proportion in Hungary is 4 %. After a short introduction, the article informs on the expansion of biodiesel production and the forecasts, with special attention to German and French development. The problems and changes in the Hungarian biodiesel programme are also discussed.

Monsanto at the top also in rapes (x)
(dr. Erzsébet Kiss)
Among the new rape varieties, Monsanto Ltd. recommends Californium, Carousel and Catalina to growers, while the prospective hybrids offered them by the company are Exacto and Exagone.

Recommended rapes from Saatbau Linz Hungary Ltd. (x)
(Péter Kiss)
Saatbau Linz Hungary Ltd. briefly describes a range of rapes for growers (Labrador, Mohican, Tissot, Aviso, Navajo and Winnetou).

Four tons of steel! (x)
(Zoltán Fecsó)
The experience of growing KWS rapes from the point of view of Megyaszó Seed Ltd is recorded.

Sunflower diseases and their damages
(Dr. Pál Békési)
The author deals with the major pathogens and the sunflower diseases caused by them, however not with the conventional approach (pathogens, symptoms, biology and control) but from the point of view of the provoked damage in quality and quantity. The author outlines the yield components (crop density and seed weight per sunflower head) that are affected by downy mildew, white stem and head rot and the sunflower diseases caused by Diaporthe, Phoma, Alternaria, Macrophomina, Botrytis and Rhizopus sp. The conditions of protecting the crop are also mentioned.

Verticillium wilt in sunflowers
(Tamás Horváth)
The aim of the brief study is to draw the attention of growers and plant protection professionals to a relatively less known fungal disease caused by Verticillium albo-atrum. There is no method available to control it at the moment.

CEREAL GROWING

Wheat varieties – past, present and future
(Dr. László Bódis)
The author is seeking the answer to the following questions: Are there enough varieties available for growers and processors? Why is it necessary to carry out trials with registered varieties in different regions of the country? What is the lifetime of a variety? The author gives tabulated information on the varieties included in the National List and studied in the regional trials, as well as on their yields. He briefly deals with the issues of wheat breeding on crop quality and quantity. Finally, he presents and evaluates the share of the varieties of significant importance in seed production.

New harvest – old problems
(Attila Réther)
After briefly outlining the problem of intervention buying up of cereal overstocks, the author presents his recommendations to solve it. Similarly to some other professionals, he believes that quantity approach should be replaced by the requirement for growing high-quality, marketable cereals. The national wheat quality survey (“Wheat quality map”) made by Cereal Control well represents the average quality of Hungarian wheat. In spite of the big differences among the particular seasons, the average quality has improved. In his opinion, the way out is to produce and market a considerable part of the crop in an organised structure with the cooperation of the grower, integrator and the trader, preferably according to the requirements of the sound West-European mills, in improving quality. He considers it very important that growers and buyers store the harvested wheat separated according to varieties and quality categories, and have them tested for the quality parameters (protein content, falling number and alveographic value) in compliance with European standards.

Present and future of cereal growing from the point of view of a company manager
(Dr. Zoltán Lakatos)
The author gives an account of the Hungarian situation of cereal growing based on his own experience. He expresses the importance of the country’s EU accession and the intervention, summarising the main characteristics of intervention. He draws up his recommendations for the tasks determining the future of cereal growing, that may contribute to achieve that surplus crop would be beneficial for the country instead of involving a big problem.

Before inspections in cereals
(Zoltán Benke)
According to current data, in 2005, seed-growing area has decreased in all cereals except two species. It is caused by the failure in selling, in autumn 2004, a part of the certified seeds produced in high volumes. Spring in both 2004 and 2005 were basically rainy and cool, resulting in fairly good tillering and dense crops stands. The author highlights all the problems seed growers need to pay attention to in 2005, based on the experience of last year’s inspections (increased infestation by wild oats, more heavy weed infestation on areas frequently exposed to excessive water in the soil, storms in June, excessive N-supply and lodging caused by applying improper seed-rate, mixed varieties, control of fungal diseases and harvesting as early as possible when reaching full ripening).

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Structure of fertilizer broadcasters (6). Pneumatic fertilizer broadcasters
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
In addition to mechanic fertilizer broadcasters, the principle of air-assisted transport and distribution is also used for spreading fertilizers. The different pneumatic fertilizer broadcasters are common in using a central fertilizer hopper, supplying air flow by a turbine, fertilizer is directed by a feeder into the air flow that transports fertilizer in air pipes to the distributing device at the end of these pipes. There are two kinds of machines in terms of directing fertilizer into the air flow: central and split feeding fertilizer broadcasters. You may get acquainted with the details of the structure of such machines from the article.

Vaderstad clinic “The appearance of Rapid already indicated the capacity of the machine that was proved later” (x)
The experience of a grower from Dusnok, using Väderstad implements (Carrier, Rapid, NZ-Mini) in his farm.

Under the magnifying glass … (35) Vogel&Noot TM-40 disk loosener
(Dr. Sándor Soós)
This part of the series takes Vogel&Noot TM-40 heavy disk loosener under the magnifying glass. The machine is suitable for stubble stripping and management, incorporation of maize stems in the soil before ploughing and levelling the soil after ploughing in soils with different textures. The author gives a detailed description of the main elements of the disk loosener, followed by informing on the results of testing its working quality, performance, operation parameters and energetic characteristics. Finally, the article presents recommendations for growers based on testing results.

Seen heard, read. A new Axial store in Miskolc
(Zoltán Molnár)
Axiál Ltd. invited its partners to the inauguration of its new store in Miskolc on 9 June. Manager Zsolt Harsányi introduced the newly delivered premises. He mentioned also the new Axiál Financial Service of the company in his presentation. Its key point is that the procedure of buying and financing the machine has been placed in one hand. It means that, in addition to traditionally providing favourable financial conditions, they also undertake the administration, seeking resources, guarantee, and offer financial conditions with less contribution, suited to the characteristics of farming.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

News from the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control
In its short communication, the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) informs on the mandatory requirement for licensing the placing on the market of vegetable young plants and seed onions, and for registration of growers and wholesalers of potted flowers and young plants of annual flower crops.

Bayer meeting 2005: didn’t you miss the opportunity
(Attila Kosztolányi)
A Bayer CropScience hosted a large-scale field show this year again. Plant protection professionals, traders and representatives of the plant protection official body were invited to get acquainted with the key points and efficacy of various Bayer programmes already implemented in practice and the ones to be introduced later for the protection of certain crops.

Thoughts of a Hungarian wheat grower in early summer, 2005
(Dr. István Csíbor)
The author gives an outlook to wheat production in 2005, raising the most important questions in connection with current expectations.

Dangerous diseases (I/2) Grey mould of grapes and sunflowers
(Szabolcs Makó, Dr. Pál Békési, Dr. György Kis)
The part of the series about dangerous plant diseases is about the grey mould of grapes and sunflowers. The authors outline the geographic distribution, host range of the pathogen and give a detailed description of the symptoms in both crops. We may get to know the morphology and biology of the causing agent, as well as the economic importance of the disease both in grapes and sunflowers. Finally the genetic, cultural and chemical means of control are discussed and the registered fungicides are listed.

Note for growers. About cooperating
(Miklós Kurucz)
This note deals with cooperatives, the world-known company form, briefly presenting its structure and operation, together with the advantages of collaboration. It is important especially in agriculture to properly interpret again and again the real content of co-operation, so that farmers and companies could cooperate in a European way.

Dangerous pests (II/1) Storage pests
(Béla Tóth, Margit Cziklin, József Nagy)
This article of the series focuses on storage pests, their importance and damage. Going through the paper, you may get acquainted with the taxonomy and geographic distribution of the major storage pests. You may have an insight into their morphological characteristics and biology. In addition to it, detailed information is provided about the possibilities of protecting our products against them. The registered pesticides, their active substances and dosages are given in a tabulated form.

Protecting grain products
(Judit Gerő)
K-Obiol 25 EC (piperonyl butoxide + deltamethrin) is a water soluble liquid insecticide from Bayer Hungary Ltd. for the protection of cereal grain products.

Certain data on growing winter cereals and oilseed crops
(József Lukács)
The brief article prepared on the basis of reports issued by the county agricultural offices informs on the cropping area of winter cereals (winter wheat, winter barley, oat and triticale), and of oilseed crops (winter rape and sunflowers) in 2005, the condition of the crop stands and the estimated average yields, compared to last year’s data.

Is the beetle about to win also in county Baranya?
(Recorded by Zsuzsa Györök)
Our journalist asked dr. Géza Vörös, deputy director of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Tolna about the current situation and prospects of larval damage by western corn rootworm.

Seen heard, read. International press conference held by BASF in Bucarest
(Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
Similarly to previous years’ practice, BASF organised an international press conference on 18-20 April 2005. This time the representatives of agricultural journals, among them of Agrofórum, from ten countries were invited to a future EU member state, Romania. How does BASF position itself on the 140th anniversary of its foundation? What kind of answers can the company give to the future questions of growers and users with its products? These were the core issues of the press conference.

Scientists’ responsibility and GM crops
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)
The author wishes to draw the attention to the very slight differences between the procedure that should be followed before the registration of a plant protection chemical and a GMO for production, in particular to the risk assessment of the expected favourable and adverse effects.

INVITE will overcome difficulties (x)
(Sándor Boros)
The advantages of using the mixture of Invite EC + Diabro CS (cucurbitacin + chloropyriphos) to control western corn rootworm in the field are outlined.

Fertilizer application in a simple way – useful services for reaching high yields (x)
AMI Hungary Ltd. recommends its software for planning fertilizer use, allowing easy and exact design of fertilizer application for the whole crop rotation.

On your request: POWER fertilizers at a discount price! (x)
Kemira GrowHow offers its POWER fertilizer for autumn application.

Plant and soil probiotics (x)
Biomex Plus is a concentrated, wide-spectrum product, with bacterial and fungal content to enhance chemical and soil biological processes.

Let’s apply GRAMIX NPK fertilizer in a reasonable way! (x)
A newly developed GRAMIX NPK produced with „bulk blending” technology from Fertilia Ltd.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)