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Agroforum 2005 June

Call
(Dr. László Bódis)

FIELD CROP GROWING

Main aspects of controlling stem and head diseases of sunflowers
(Dr. György Kis)
Early summer is a decisive period in the protection of field crops. It is especially true to sunflowers that is a host plant of over 80 diseases. Among them, under Hungarian conditions, fungal diseases are the most widespread and important, therefore the specialist of the plant protection and soil conservation service summarises the key points of their control. He draws the attention to the factors and circumstances that need to be considered during the planning of chemical control. He also presents, in a tabulated form, the products registered for use against fungal diseases in sunflowers.

TIURAM-GRANUFLOW to cure sunflowers (x)
(Ferenc Jáger)
Summit Agro Ltd. recommends its TMTD fungicide to control head diseases, as well as Diaporthe and Phoma diseases of sunflowers.

Weeds – herbicides – costs of post-emergence weed control in sunflowers – against monocot weeds
(Béla Török, Dr. István Csíbor)
The professionals of the Szekszárd Plant-Protection Ltd. give tabulated information on the costs of the particular management programmes for post-emergence weed control in sunflowers, assisting growers to be familiar with the complicated system of the different treatment methods and their costs.

Wheat growers’ dilemmas
(Dr. István Csíbor)
Is it paying to grow more wheat? Is it worth growing good quality wheat? Is it worth the trouble at all to grow wheat? The author seeks the answer to these questions in this article.

Chances of wheat diseases on 22 May
(Dr. István Füzi)
The author weighs in his mind the likelihood of spreading of wheat diseases in the light of spring weather and last years’ experience. He calls the attention to the fact that there were problems with leaf rust, leaf spot and DTR, while at some places, also with ear blight already in 2004. Therefore, this year the amount of primary source of infection has been much higher, thus we can count on a season with even more damages than last year, and the signs are already visible in the fields.

Foliar diseases of winter wheat …
(Péter Hertelendy)
The article gives an insight into the diseases affecting the foliage of winter wheat in May. In addition to the spread of necrotrophic pathogens causing leaf spot, it draws the attention to a well-known biotrophic disease, powdery mildew.

A snapshot of winter wheat diseases in the middle of May
(Mária Csõsz)
A brief summary is provided about the current situation of the major diseases in winter wheat.

Wheat varieties and diseases
(National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control)
The major data on the diseases of the registered winter wheat varieties are presented in tables according to the main maturity groups.

Rice breeding in Szarvas
(Dr. Ibolya Simon Kiss)
The investigator of the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation looks back on the rice research work begun in Hungary 70 years ago. She presents the results in breading of varieties for quality and production characteristics and for resistance. She gives an account of the varieties included in the National List and registered during the past 20 years, the main values of which are tabulated, completed with the average data of trials carried out between 2001 and 2004. Finally she informs readers about the further research prospects.

227.5 million western corn rootworm eggs per hectare (x)
(István Rikk)
Bayer CropScience recommends growers its thiacloprid insecticide Calypso for controlling the adults of western corn rootworm.

A new possibility for weed control in maize for an out-of-date price (x)
(Tamás Fehér)
Titus MTG, a mixture of florasulam and rimsulfuron is a new possibility for a targeted in-crop treatment of weeds from Hungarian Kwizda Ltd.

Maize growers! Why do we need Invite? (x)
(Péter Maros)
The advantages of the mixture Invite EC + Diabro CS (cucurbitacin + chloropyriphos) for in-crop protection against western corn rootworm are outlined.

FRUIT GROWING

Last year’s experience in growing stone fruits at Füzesgyarmat
(Zsuzsanna Kovács)
The author summarises experiences of sour cherry growing obtained in 2004. She presents the main elements of the crop management programme that have effect on plant health state: pruning, nutrient supply, pest management and weed control.

Certain key points of sour cherry growing
(István Nemesnyik)
The professional of the biggest and most important fruit growing company in Békés, a county with no significant fruit production history, introduces the key points of pest management in their main crop, sour cherries. It has been based on the principles of integrated fruit production for several years.

Visiting ‘Doctor of Plant Medicine’ Ltd.
(Dr. György Sárospataki)
This is an interview with Mr. Szabolcs Makó, the manager of the ‘Boglár Doctor of Plant Medicine Ltd.’ and the former plant protection manager of the one-time Balatonboglár State Farm. He is asked about last year’s pest management situation in vineyards and orchards and about the applied management programmes.

MACHINES, MECHANISATION

Structure of fertilizer spreaders (5) Screw and belt conveyor type spreaders
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
The narrow working width of conventional fertilizer spreaders and the high initial unevenness of distribution of spinning fertilizer spreaders in the middle of the past century urged specialists to develop machines with wider working width and lower initial unevenness of distribution that, among them, resulted in screw type spreaders. Screw type spreaders have their role in the crop management programme even today, as powdery or fine-crystalline materials can be efficiently applied with them. You may get acquainted with the structure and operation of such machines from the article.

Environmentally friendly ground cover in vineyards – a development programme in the Balaton Uplands
(László Némethy, István Szabó, Péter Varga, János Májer, Csaba Németh)
Conventional tillage and intensive mechanisation done in the past decades in our vineyards had various adverse effects on soils. At the same time, in our days there is an increasing demand also for reducing soil evaporation caused by the extremely dry periods in summer. This is an especially topical task in the vineyards around the Lake Balaton where soil and nutrient leaching imposes risk to water quality and biology of Balaton. On the other hand, 8000 tons of plant material is available annually due to the mandatory mowing of weedy meadows and grasses on the territory of the Balaton Uplands National Park that may be suitable for use as soil cover in vineyards. Placing out and utilisation of such organic wastes in vineyards require the development of new elements of the crop management programme. This is why the Research Institute of Viticulture and Oenology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, in cooperation with the Balaton Uplands National Park and Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering (FVMMI) has launched a joint research-development project to implement the programme. Readers may get acquainted with the results and experiences from the article.

Seen, heard, read. A new testing station for putting into operation and regular checking of tractors at IKR Co.
(Dr. György Demes)
A station for testing agricultural power machines and slow vehicles, unique in the region, has been established and inaugurated in the Technical Centre of IKR Co. at Nagyigmánd. After the ceremony, our journalist asked the technical director, Mr Gábor Antos about the establishment of the station and the possibilities of making use of the services supplied by the company.

Renewal of the legendarily reliable Bábolna dryers (x)
(Gábor Antos)
IKR Co. informs on the possibilities of reconstructing its B1-15 dryers in the frame of a development programme.

Väderstad-clinic. Väderstad machines in organic farming (x)
You may get to know the experience of the Ecological Pilot Farm of the Rural Development Centre at Kishantos in organic farming using Väderstad implements.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Tillage recommendations for integrated crop production
(Dr. Márta Birkás)
The author points out that the aim of soil cultivation in an integrated system is to establish, improve and maintain the balance between the expected results of production and the natural conditions in a cost-efficient way, without negatively affecting the environment. Further objectives are to mitigate adverse soil conditions, to improve physical and biological soil conditions and increase positive effects of the preceding crop, as well as to enhance the efficiency of other important interventions during growing, i.e. fertilizer application, irrigation and plant protection. The balance between soil conditions changing with tillage operations and the moisture regime is an important requirement of integrated production. The value of good soil conditions is increased by the chance of reducing climatic extremities in integrated production. In stubble tillage the harvested field must be well-kept as much as possible in order to improve moisture regime and cultivability of the soil. The soil becoming favourable from biological and moisture aspects must be cultivated to the required depth in a way to ensure a complete balance among the physical, biological and chemical factors by the time of sowing. The author qualifies the basic tillage methods in such terms. She emphasises that if physical and biological soil conditions were significantly improving, we could have less concern about the probably extreme seasons in the future.

The role of nutrient elements in plants and current possibilities for nutrient supply (2)
(Dr. József Horváth, Dr. Pálmai Ottó)
Continuing their article published in the extra issue of the journal in March, the authors inform on the meso- and microelements essential for the normal life of plants, their role in the a biochemical processes in certain field and horticultural crops. They describe the symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and the interrelationship among the effects of the particular nutrients.

New concept in the fertilizer application of field vegetables
(Dr. István Terbe, Noémi Kappel, Dr. Péter Csathó)
Since the elaboration of the last overall guidelines for fertilizer application in vegetables, several new research results and production experience have been obtained that allowed working out of a new, scientifically and economically based nutrient supply system. In this frame a new, cost-saving and environmentally friendly macro- and microelement fertilization system for 38 field vegetables has been created. Similarly to the earlier models, in the advisory system based on the balance-approach, field vegetables were evaluated and grouped according to their responses to and uptake of N-, P- and K-fertilizers. Compared to other nutrient supply advisory systems, this one calculates with less fertilizer rates and its aim is to achieve stable and high yields, furthermore it is intended also to meet the more stringent environmental requirements. Read the article to get to know the structure and elements of this system.

Regulating sewage sludge use in France
(Dr. Judit Hadházy Ivanics, Dr. János Káldy)
France is outstanding in the use of sewage sludge. It is the country with the biggest agricultural sector among the member states of the European Union, possessing several decades’ experience in the agricultural use of sewage sludge. About 60% of the annually produced 850,000 tons (in dry matter) of sludge is disposed on agricultural area, 15 % is incinerated and 25 % is deposited. On the contrary, in Hungary 150.000 tons of sewage sludge is produced, 18-20 % of which is disposed directly, while 22-25 % applied to the fields after composting. Both countries regulate the agricultural use of sewage sludge based on the Council Directive 86/278/EEC, however in different ways. The authors wish to point out such differences by giving detailed information on the French system and comparing it to the Hungarian one.

Experience of the ragweed campaign in county Békés in 2004
(Ferenc Molnár)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation of county Békés summarises the experience of last year’s ragweed campaign in the county, giving an account of the mostly infested crops, the legal background of the mandatory weed control, measures taken throughout the county in 2004, the achieved results and finally, of the future plans..

Note for growers. About plantation forest (2.)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This note provides information for establishing the sound market background of the energy forest. It also turns out from the article that the division of the particular energy plantations and the allocation of related subsidies take place now in the European Union. Hungary has declared a demand for 150 thousand hectares until 2010. The subsidy for it also exists, and a 50 % non-refundable contribution from the Operative Programme of Agricultural and Rural Development sources has been allocated.

Report on the general assembly of the Chamber held on 10 March 2005
(AF)
A article briefly reports from the assembly of the Hungarian Chamber of Plant Protection Professionals and Doctors of Plant Medicine organised in March.

Farmer Credit (x)
The credit scheme of Budapest Bank is explained for financing the growing of wheat, maize, sunflowers, rape and barley in the system of contracted production.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)