The plant breeders, gardeners and plant protectors monthly magazine

Current issue

Recent special issue

Agroforum 2005 May

CEREAL GROWING

About winter wheat diseases and their control
(Dr. Pál Békési)
Everyone agrees that, in addition to a good quality seed dressing, generally two in-crop treatments with fungicides are necessary in winter wheat in order to reliably protect the crop (at the beginning of stem elongation and at the end of heading – beginning of flowering). At the same time, a grower should know how big the risk is that he takes when, for lacking the money or intentionally omits such treatment. Doest any reasonable risk-taking exist? The author analyses these questions, dividing wheat diseases in three groups. He gives the details of the time and extent of the major diseases based on a figure and outlines their control. Sowing an example, he confirms that higher yields can be harvested if the two in-crop treatments are carried out in winter wheat. He recommends that, if we cannot afford two applications, let us omit the second one but only conditionally. Let’s delay the second treatment but if raining is foreseen, forecasted by the meteorological service, we must not hesitate to apply the fungicide before it actually rains.

How to appropriately manage strobilurin-resistance?
(Translation by: Eszter Balikó)
This is the translation of the German journal for professionals, ‘Top Agrar’, published in its number 1/2004. The timeliness of the original paper was given by the fact that powdery mildew and Septoria leaf spot (Septoria tritici) are becoming more and more resistant to strobilurins. The article begins with informing on the two types of pathogen-specific resistance, followed by the European and Hungarian situation regarding resistance. It is not the amount of strobilurin that has a major role in spreading the resistance but the frequency of applying it (quality resistance). Using the active substance more times increases selection pressure. The authors and the interviewed manufacturers, being of the same opinion, believe that the strategy needs to be changed to ensure good efficacy of the treatments. Strobilurins, in mixture with the triazol fungicides, applied not more than twice can be successfully used for controlling Septoria leaf spot.

Book review. For your kind attention …
(Dr. László Bódis)
The author reviews the monograph titled “Barley” edited by dr. András Tomcsányi and dr. Gábor Turcsányi, published in the series ‘Hungary’s cultivated plants’.

Prospects of public warehousing and intervention
(Dr. László Rieger, Zsuzsanna Jancsok, Norbert Kató, Judit Nógrádi)
After a long preparatory work, the ministry amended the decree, creating the legal basis for the successful accomplishment of cereal intervention. Utilizing professional skills and knowledge in cereal markets of warehouse staffs, it will allow quick selection of intervention warehouses and buying up of cereals offered for intervention. Being aware of this, the paper gives a detailed account of the institutional system of warehousing (set-up, tasks, operation and justification of its existence), as well as tracks the complete procedure of intervention according to the normal and the warehousing scheme. The authors are of the opinion that, based on the amendment of the decree, the three Hungarian public warehouses will accept about one million tons of cereals in the forthcoming two months. Therefore we may assume that there are fairly good chances for successfully accomplishing cereal intervention.

„Supplying nutrients and protecting” in cereals (x)
(István Tamás)
Hungarian Kwizda outlines the elements of its programme, its best products for top-dressing, weed control, crop foliage protection and applying foliar fertilizer.

MAIZE GROWING

A new, cost-efficient possibility for producing hybrid maize seeds
(Gyula László, Gábor Medgyesi)
Since 2002, a biological preparation has been on the market also in Hungary, allowing the mass application of beneficial organisms, the Trichogramma egg parasitoid wasps. In contrast with Western Europe and the USA, acceptability of this technique is relatively low in our country. However, their application has been greatly increased, especially in sweetcorn and hybrid seed maize growing. The authors give an account of the results of efficacy trials carried out in hybrid maize with Trichogramma wasps in three regions of the country. They concluded from their trials that the efficacy of a pest management programme based on Trichogramma egg parasitoids is practically the same as of “drastic” chemicals. Accurately releasing high number of parasitoids at a proper time may result in efficacy of 60-90 %.

Again about western corn rootworm. Report
(Zsuzsanna Györök)
Last year mature, fecundated females had a very long time to lay their eggs. Therefore it is useful to know how massive damage may western corn rootworm larvae cause in spring 2005. The report contains certain recommendations for reducing larval damage and informs on the likely time of larval emergence. Options are indicated for growers who missed larval control, and answers are also given on how to prepare for the eventual appearance of beetles.

Western corn rootworm has caught growers off guard (x)
(Dr. Bertalan Tóth)
Biomark Trading Co. discusses the benefit and weak points of the methods applied in the integrated control of western corn rootworm.

A universal herbicide in maize with new adjuvant and efficacy enhancer (x)
(István Rikk)

VEGETABLE GROWING

Study. Exotic viruses threatening vegetables – an outbreak in Hungary
(Dr. Pál Salamon Dr. László Palkovics)
Year by year, various virus diseases cause significant losses in vegetable growing. The authors concluded from the results of three decades’ research work that damages provoked by viruses on vegetables have not decreased in Hungary. In addition to the known diseases, some new ones appeared. A part of them has likely been introduced with seeds or vegetative propagating materials. The paper calls the attention to such viruses: Tobamoviruses (on peppers), Tomato spotted wilt virus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, Colombian Datura Virus, Pepino mosaic virus (on tomatoes) and Tomato bushy stunt virus, to the diseases caused by them, as well as to the relationship of factors supporting their establishment and spread. The most efficient way to control them is – or would be – the use of resistant varieties in growing.

Virus diseases of skinless oil pumpkin
(Nataša Dukiæ, Dr. Branka Krstiæ, Dr. János Berényi, Dezső Papp)
Cucurbits are severely affected by virus diseases. The authors detected and identified three viruses that are responsible for almost all the damages of skinless oil pumpkin. They discuss their symptoms, identification, life cycle and the possible methods to control them: Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus 2.

MACHINES, MECHANISATION

Structure of fertilizer broadcasters (4) Broadcasters with reciprocating spout
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
The success of fertilizer broadcasters with reciprocating spout can be explained by the fact that they were placed on the market with their good uniformity of cross distribution when spinning fertilizer spreaders could not have such performance and the development of the pneumatic machines was not advanced enough. It is a general principle of the broadcasters with reciprocating spout that the parts that get in contact with fertilizers are made of plastic, stainless steel, or an alloy resistant to corrosion. These machines are equipped with hoppers of different sizes and are in mounted and trailed execution. Their structure and operation are detailed in the article.

Environmental approach of tillage – competitive growing
(Dr. István Jóri J.)
The economic changes taken place in the early ‘90s basically influenced the structure of Hungarian agriculture and by that, the applied tillage techniques. Today there is a demand both for the use of the European intensive and the North-American extensive systems. This is why specialists working in Hungarian research and development need to take both effects into consideration when working out the new, reasonable soil conservation and environmentally friendly tillage systems and the related machinery. The author sums up the soil cultivation systems that can be successfully applied under the Hungarian soil and climatic conditions. Among tillage implements, he focuses on the solutions allowing up-to-date and efficient growing.

Horsch Terrano – quick, reliable and simple! (x)
(Zoltán Szász)
Horsch company has developed “Terrano” field cultivators as a result of its experience and continuous connection with growers. The article summarises the major parameters of these implements.

Seen, heard, read. VALTRA tractors are again on the market
(Dr. György Demes)
The new official distributor, AGROKER Ltd. introduced the Valtra Tractors, awarded by the title “The tractor of year 2005” and by the “Golden Tractor” in the category of design, on 18 March in Kecskemét. Read the article reporting on the event to get a brief knowledge about Valtra tractors available in 7 series and 28 models.

Vaderstad-clinic. „Having looked for – and found a machine suitable for our specific soil and rainfall conditions: Väderstad Rapid Air 600 S” (x)
Green Garden Hungary Ltd. gives an account of their experience with Rapid Air 600 S drill.

Seen, heard, read. Revisiting Lajosmizse
(Dr. György Demes)
The invited agricultural professionals could get acquainted with the whole range of Axiál Ltd.’s products at Lajosmizse in an open-air and pavilion machine show. About 15.000 professionals of the agricultural industry visited the event from all over the country. Our journal asked the director of Axiált Ltd., Mr. Zsolt Harsányi about the current state of investments in Hungarian markets of agricultural machines, the company’s achievements in 2004 and the future plans after the press conference organized together with opening the event.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Field cruisers: QUEYRAS and AUTAN (x)
(Ferenc Jáger)
Summit-Agro Hungary Ltd. recommends two new sorghum hybrids, ‘Queyras’ and ‘Autan’ released by the Euralis-Rustica breeding house.

Press release
(AF)
On 13 April, the dean of the Faculty of Horticultural Sciences of the Corvinus University, Budapest, the dean of the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences of the Szent István University, Gödöllő, the dean of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of the Agricultural Centre of Debrecen University and the general director of the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control concluded an agreement. By this act, the three academic departments placed out in the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control by the above universities have become jointly and uniformly directed.

Note for growers. About plantation forest (1)
(Miklós Kurucz)
A new series is launched with this note. It focuses on a recently appeared, new version of traditional forestry, energy forest or in other name, plantation forest. It takes only a few years to achieve the size of cutting the trees that allows a more calculable and quicker return on investment. The single purpose of plantation forest is to produce enery resource. Taking this into account, the most suitable trees are locust, poplar and willow. A an ideal production site they will yield 75-100 tons/ha wood. The next “Note” will provide information for establishing the sound market background of energy forests.

GrowHow trials with foliar fertilizers (x)
Kemira’s products were evaluated in trials carried out in winter wheat and sunflowers by the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Fejér.

Nutri-Phite Ultra (x)
It is Agrosol 2000 Ltd.’s recommendation for quick phosphorous supply tailored to plants’ requirements.

A fruit growing company, Kevefruct Co. introduces itself. Report
(Dr. György Sárospataki)
We asked Mr. József Gagyhy, the manager of Kevefruct Co. in Ráckeve, being also the deputy leader of the Hungarian Vegetable and Fruit Board about the problems and successes of growing apples, sweet and sour-cherries and plums in 2004.

Seen, heard, read. The Association of Hungarian Pesticide Producers has been established and operated
(Dr. György Demes)
The Association of Hungarian Pesticide Producers organised a press conference on 5 April in order to give an account of their objectives, tasks, operation and plans. Agrofórum reports on the most important remarks and comments heard on the press conference.

Demonstration farm in Kétsoprony (x)
(Sándor Bubik)
Meetings, demonstrations and papers organized and issued in the recent years by DuPont have mentioned several times the results achieved in the “Rákóczi” Cooperative in Kétsoprony. This article allows us to have a short look at them.

Prevention of poisoning bees with pesticides
(Péter Malya)
Poisoning bees is an event that both sides would like to avoid: plant protection professionals for the potential of being convicted by the court and beekeepers for the difficulties of providing the necessary evidences. Therefore preventing such a case is of primary importance for both parties. Now the author calls the attention to the key points of preventing poisoning of bees in addition to the requirements of the legal provisions.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)