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Agroforum 2005 November

The month of Saint Andrew
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH – SUNFLOWER

Prospects of domestic and global market for sunflower growing
(Hajnalka Hingyi)
In the first part of the paper, the investigator of the Agricultural Research Institute gives an overview of the global market prospects of sunflower growing. The article informs on the prediction of the international research centre FAPRI (Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute) stating that global production will annually increase by 1.5% from the economic year 2005/2006, reaching 30 million tons by 2015. According to the prediction, self-supply in sunflowers within the EU-25 is estimated about 71 % for the year 2005/2006 that is likely to decrease to 67 % by 2014/2015. The second part of the paper lets us have an insight in the Hungarian situation of sunflower growing, the cost-benefit relations of the enterprises, as well as the in the domestic and international trends in sunflower market prices.

Renewed LG-offer in sunflowers in the light of this season’s experience (x)
(Károly Kupi)
Read Limagrain Hungary Ltd.’s offer for sunflowers varieties in the particular ripening times.

The situation and management programme of growing sunflowers
(Dr. Péter Pepó, László Zsombik, András Szabó)
First the paper lets us know the current consumption customs of the population worldwide, as well as the global and Hungarian production of oil crops, including the cropping areas and yields, illustrated by tables and figures. It is followed by taking the main elements of the crop management programme one after the other (rotation, nutrient demand and supply, sowing, crop density, plant protection, ripening and desiccation), giving a detailed discussion of them from the point of view of growing sunflower hybrids.

Study of registered sunflower varieties for resistance to diseases, 2005
(Dr. László Gergely, Zsuzsanna Birta Vas, Dr. Ilona Walcz)
The specialists of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control give a tabulated information on the results of provocation and small plot trials carried out with registered sunflower varieties for testing their resistance to the major stem and head diseases /white stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiourum), charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina), sunflower stem canker (Diaporthe helianthi), as well as white and grey head rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiourum and Botrytis cinerea)/. They discuss the response of the hybrids to the diseases according to the ripening groups.

Disease problems in sunflower growing
(Dr. Pál Békési)
The author takes the possibilities of controlling a major problem of sunflower growing, white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) under the magnifying glass: genetic, biological, chemical and cultural control methods, allowing to reduce severe damages even in years with extremely rainy weather. The expert states that we could have done more even this season against this disease by better using cultural techniques, e.g. by avoiding the growing of host plants of the polyphagous pathogens of sunflower for 4-5 years, keeping the fields weed-free, avoiding excessive N-supply and dense crop stands, etc. He also points out that developments in biological and cultural control can be accomplished in the future that would allow preventing severe losses similar to the ones occurred this year.

Wishing to grow sunflowers also next year? Think of KWS! (x)
(Dr. Sándor Nagy)
KWS company recommends, in addition to Tuscania RM, Heliasol RM, Barolo RM, also the hybrid Tellia RM for sunflower growers.

2005, the year of sunflower diseases
(Rozália Rátai Vida)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok wishes to summarise the experience obtained in her county about the causes and the extent of sunflower diseases in 2005. A figure shows this season’s rainfall conditions as an important factor of infection by the pathogens. It is conspicuous that there were three rainy periods in the county in 2005. The first one between 10 and 20 of April favoured sunflower downy mildew, the second one during the flowering of the crop enhanced infection by grey mold, while rains in August and September were extremely favourable to sunflower stem canker and white mold. The article informs on the incidence of the particular diseases, as well as on the problems of the pest management programmes and experience in protecting the crop in the county.

Sunflower breeding by Pioneer (x)
(Dr. András Gulyás, Dr. János Knódel, Dr. László Piukovics)
Pioneer Hi-Bred Hungary Ltd. lets readers know its results in breeding sunflowers.

Experience of protecting sunflowers in 2005 in county Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén
(Dr. Sándor Csete)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén gives an account of the experience about protecting sunflowers in 2005. The paper informs on the incidence and damages caused by sunflower downy mildew, sunflower stem canker, white mold, black stem (Phoma macdonaldii), charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) and leaf spot (Alternaria spp.), as well as on weed control problems arisen this year.

Performance of Syngenta sunflower hybrids, 2005 (x)
(János Bíró)
Syngenta Seeds Ltd. recommends the sunflower hybrids Alexandra PR, Pedro PR, Arena PR, NK Brio, NK Dolbiand NK Armoni in the light of the experience obtained during the season of 2005.

This is the way they do … Talking about sunflower production
(Attila Kosztolányi)
This is a series of interviews with growers, showing who believes what about the secret of successful sunflower growing.

We have asked sunflower about the experience of controlling its weeds
(Dr. László Varga)
The interview with the specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Tolna informs about this year’s weather and its effect on sunflowers, about herbicide choice, weed problems, the particular application techniques and desiccation.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Which is better: ploughing till late autumn or let’s put it up to next spring?
(Dr. Márta Birkás)
The author deals with basic tillage operations after harvesting till late autumn, the problems of tillage in wet soils and the possibilities of decreasing damages. She draws the attention to a modest, though very useful objective that can be set at late-autumn basic tillage, i.e. to cover the huge stem residues with soil with an operation that allows better water intake compared to trampled stubbles. She gives ideas also for deciding to carry out basic tillage in late autumn or in spring. She emphasizes that basic tillage in autumn gives a big benefit compared to doing it in spring if soil conditions established by that operation remain till sowing and further on, during the season.

Clarification during the treatment of new wines
(Dr. György Pásti)
Self-purification, natural stabilisation and certain wine treatments are needed for the complete clarification of the wine, involving the development of its taste and aromas. Thin wines with lower alcohol content develop during a shorter period, full-bodied wines with higher alcohol content need a longer time to give a finished product. Clarification is the method for enhancing purification and reaching bright, nice appearance, that is, in most cases aiming also at stabilizing the wine. Before giving an account of the secrets of clarification, the expert of the Corvinus University draws the attention to certain characteristics of this vintage. This year the majority of wines are very acidic, generally with the dominance of maleic acid providing a rougher taste, the potassium contents are higher, etc. The paper outlines the role of clarification in wine treatment, as well as the properties of the major fining agents.

„Where the Sun meets the mountain”
(Dr. László Bódis)
The series of events titled “The wine region of the month – winemakers of the month” was launched on 1 March 2005, introducing a recognized wine-region every month. The House of the Hungarian Wines invited the best wines and winemakers of the Mátraalja wine region for the month of October. Our correspondent gives valuable information on this wine-region.

Storage and shelf life of vegetables
(Dr. Zsuzsanna Füstös, Rita Szabó, Attila Szokó)
The aim of long-term and temporary storage of vegetables is the same: to preserve the freshness and quality of the produce from harvesting to consumption. As the freshly harvested goods and the ones taken out of the storage facilities are waiting for customers on the shelves of market places and supermarkets for a certain time, the conditions of keeping vegetables on the shelves gain high importance. The article gives valuable information on the requirements keeping radishes, cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, cauliflowers and onions on the shelves. In addition to it, the authors tabulate the particular vegetables grouped according to the time of their shelf-lives.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Dangerous pests (2.) Grape phylloxera
(Hajnalka L. Tóth, László Kocsis, Zoltán Lucza)
The present part of the series on dangerous pest deals with grape phylloxera (Viteus vitifoliae). Readers may get to know the importance and damage of the pest, illustrated with colour pictures. The authors give an account of the taxonomic position, geographic distribution, morphologic characteristics and biology of grape phylloxera. Of course, forecasting and means of cultural, chemical and biological control are not omitted from the paper either.

Applying mycorrhizas in agriculture (II). Application in glasshouse and in the field
(Tünde Takács, Ibolya Vörös)
This part of the series, in addition to inform on the host range of vesicular-arbuscular-mycorrhizal- fungi (VAM-fungi), reveals the role of VAM-fungi in ensuring optimal water and nutrient supply and health state of plants. The paper provides detailed information on the possibilities and advantages of applying VAM-fungal inocula in agriculture.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is a brief review of interesting articles published in foreign journals.

MECHANIS

Production and use of liquid fertilizers
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
Liquid fertilizers may be classified as solutions and suspensions. The technology of mixing plants of liquid fertilizers is closely related to receiving and storing of solid fertilizers, and there is no difference in the procedure till loading out. However, in this case the storage facility is completed with equipments for receiving and storing materials essential for preparing fertilizer solutions and suspensions, as well as for suspension substances. Intensive agitation is needed for storing suspensions, with hydraulic, mechanic or combined operation. Pressure-free liquid fertilizers may be applied with field machines or aircrafts. In the former case fertilizers may be sprayed to the soil surface or the plants, or injected in the soil. Conventional sprayers are suitable for spraying solution fertilizers, if the materials applied in their flow system resist corrosion effects prevailing therein. Solution fertilizers (urea ammonium nitrate – UAN – solutions) may be applied between the rows by multi-hole nozzles producing large drops and ensuring favourable spray distribution. Application can be done in one pass or a separate one, by a modified sprayer. Incorporation in the soil of the fertilizer needs to be managed. Suspension fertilizers may be applied to the soil surface using machines similar to low-pressure sprayers. Aeroplanes and helicopters common in plant protection and for broadcasting solid fertilizers are used for aerial application of liquid fertilizers. In such cases aircrafts are equipped with spraying units.

HORSCH technology (x)
(Zoltán Szász)
Horsch company recommends its field cultivators Terrano FX and Tiger AS for growers.

“Choosing Väderstad implements to ensure sustainable tillage” (x)
(Gábor Kovács)
The managing director of Czinagro Ltd. from county Borsod, Mr. György Czina speaks about their experience with Väderstad implements (Carrier 650 combined stubble machine, Rollex roller, Aggressive cultivator) used to follow sustainable tillage practice.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Dr. Sándor Zsembery (1922–2005)
(AF)
We commemorate Dr. Sándor Zsembery, the outstanding professor and recognised expert of the Plant Protection Department of Szent István University.

Seen heard, read. Animal Husbandry Days again in the Great Plain
(Dr. György Demes)
Hód-Farmer Co. organises Animal Husbandry Days in the Great Plain on 28-30 April 2006 for the thirteenth time, now together with the second Farmer Expo Crop Production and Horticultural Trade Fair. The general director of the company, Mr. Gábor Antal announced it at an irregular press conference for journalists on 24 September. The brief article reports on this event.

Cereal forum at Summit Agro
(Dr. György Demes)
Summit Agro Hungary Ltd., called its partners to a cereal forum to the picturesque town Visegrád on 7 September 2005. The recognised invited experts gave account of all the problems regarding the present and future of cereal growing, being in the forefront of public opinion. After the lectures, our correspondent asked dr. András Horn, the technical and marketing manager of Summit Agro Hungary Ltd. about how the recent developments of Summit Agro fit in the EU-system supporting sustainable agriculture.

BASF workshop. Focusing on cereal production, marketing and seed treatment
(Dr. György Demes)
The Club of Agro Communicators, an international organisation gathering agro-journalists established and operated by BASF, invited the representatives of agricultural journals from Central and South-eastern Europe to a workshop this autumn. The meeting, organised in Speyer near Ludwigshafen, Germany on 19-21 September, focused on growing and marketing of cereals challenging almost every country. During a short visit in the Agro Centre of BASF in Limburgerhof after the conference, participants were informed about the operation of the Technology Centre for seed treatment recently established by BASF, followed by a look around in the factory of BASF in Ludwigshafen the next day.

New banking services at Budapest Bank
(Dr. György Demes)
Budapest Bank wishes to support agricultural producers with various new solutions for financing growing. Our correspondent interviewed Mr. János Szabó, in charge with agricultural affairs of Budapest Bank about this topic.

Portrait. “Students keep me alive” Interviewing Dr. József Antal, retired professor
(Dr. László Bódis)

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)