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Agroforum 2005 September

Month of Saint Michael
(Dr. László Bódis)

CEREAL GROWING

Criteria of wheat quality
(Dr. Sándor Tömösközi)
In the introduction, the author draws the attention to that setting certain trade and quality requirements for production cannot solve alone the problems of the wheat sector suffering from significant overproduction. In order to achieve better conditions in the sector, it is necessary to define objectives, designate the prospective domestic and international markets and consistently supply trade partners. In his opinion the primary condition of development is a kind of deliberate change in concept and approach, laying emphasis on quality-centred wheat production and use. Wheat and flour quality is primarily evaluated according to the target area, therefore quality improvement is meant in terms of the end-product. Finally, we may read about certain important qualification procedures different from the Hungarian scheme, and as an example the Canadian complex qualification system is presented in a tabulated form.

Critical points of wheat growing for high crop quality and quantity
(Dr. Péter Pepó)
Fundamental changes are needed in Hungarian wheat growing within a short time in order to make it competitive both in domestic and foreign markets. As an initial step, awareness must be created among agricultural operators and also the other parts of the society about the fact that field crop production has become of multifunctional character with tasks outside the production playing an increasing part. The author evaluates global wheat growing based on statistical data and reviews the role of wheat in global trade. He follows with mentioning two alternatives of Hungarian wheat growing (quantitative and qualitative models) and explains the different conditions of applying them. He emphasizes that there is no need to fully implement the two extreme programmes; it is all the more necessary to merge the parts of the two options in practice. Therefore he considers the elements of the wheat production programme from points of view of quality and quantity.

Winter wheat genotypes meeting EU requirements
(Dr. Pál Pepó, Henriett Kovács-Oskolás, Éva Erdei)
The paper gives an account of winter wheat yields in Hungary and of the varieties that are suitable for sustainable cultivation techniques, allowing growers to reduce environmental load in addition to ensure profitability. The authors present the methods and results of their winter wheat breeding programme targeted on crop quality. Finally, they inform on winter wheat growing in certain other member states of the European Union.

About winter wheat varieties registered in 2004
(Dr. László Czirák, Sándor Kovács)
The specialist of the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control informs on the most important results of trials carried out with the recent ten winter wheat varieties prior to their registration. You may get to know the production, use and economic characteristics of the varieties classified in the early (GK Széphalom, Mv Gorsium, Mv Regiment, Mv Hombár and Mv Táltos), medium (Bobino, Mv Kemence, Cornelius and Biotop) and late (Bill) maturity groups.

What kind of wheat should we grow?
(Dr. István Csíbor)
Quality requirements are continuously changing in the Hungarian wheat market. The importance of the well-known quality factors changes (may change) year by year, therefore it is rather difficult for growers to choose the few varieties from the rich choice in August–September that would provide them with fair crop and thus (also) with success the next summer. The author wishes to bring experiences from the past, maybe they could help find the way in the problems of the future.

Sow less seeds, reap high yields in Szekszárd!
(Attila Nagy)
The so-called Austrian or German technique of shallow drilling of a low amount of seeds at a relatively early time to achieve high yields is more and more spreading in Hungary. A professional of the Szekszárd Plant Protection Ltd. asked the deputy director of crop production in the Szekszárd Agricultural Cooperative about this interesting topic. They have been using this method in wheat growing for years, allowing them to obtain remarkable yields.

Key issues in barley growing
(Szerényi Zoltán)
You may get to know the experience in barley growing written by the practitioner of the ‘Alkotmány Agricultural Cooperative’ in Somogyjád. They believe that the secret of successful barley growing lies in using certified Elite I and II seeds, sowing at a due time in well-managed (not dusty or cloddy) soil and in setting appropriate crop density.

About growing spelt wheat
(Lajos Izsó)
A professional of ‘Petõfi Agricultural Cooperative’ shares his experience with Readers in growing spelt wheat under ecological conditions. He informs on the morphological characteristics of spelt wheat, the registered varieties, furthermore on his opinion about the difficulties that prevent carrying out a successful crop management programme, in other words, the key points to observe during the production of spelt wheat.

Our new fodder crop, a perennial rye: Perenne
(Dr. Béla Farkas, Lóránt Füle, Dr. Gizella Hódos Kotvics, Dr. László Heszky)
The Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding of Szent István University, Gödöllõ, in cooperation with the Fleischmann Rudolf Research Institute, Kompolt, has produced a new crop: perennial rye called ‘Perenne’. The variety Perenne is the hybrid of two species, cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.) and mountain rye (Secale montanum Guss.). Its major characteristic trait is the perenniality, the capacity to be grown for 3-4 years without sowing again. The authors inform on the morphological and phonological characteristics of Perenne, let us have an insight into the most important issues of its management programme, and also deal with the possible uses (feed grains and green fodder) of the crop.

CEREAL PROTECTION

“History living with us”: Canada thistle (4)
(dr. Gabriella Benécs Bárdi, Lajos Gracza, Ferenc Hartmann, László Szabó)
In their earlier article the authors gave an account of the biology of Canada thistle, the possibilities of its integrated control and the trials carried out in cereals to control it. Continuing the series, now we publish the results of weed management experiments in cereal stubble.

Let’s keep an eye on storage pests!
(Péter Hertelendy)
The basic point in storing cereals is that the plant material is alive, though in dormancy that actively responses to environmental effects. The objective during storage is to preserve cereals till sales in a marketable state, the closest possible to the quality at loading in. Marketable conditions mean also freedom from storage pests. The author gives an account of the major storage pests (grain weevil, confused flour beetle, Indian meal moth, mottled corn clothes moth, flour mite, etc.), their morphology and the characteristics of their damage. He goes through the basic and logical actions that may either replace costly grain disinfestation or considerably reduce the number of treatments.

Cereal seeds without seed treatment? – Never!
(Ágoston Tóth)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service calls the attention to the importance of seed treatment for cereals. He points out that the biggest damage of omitting this element of the crop management programme is not the penalty inflicted on the grower or the yield loss but the influence on the whole Hungarian cereal exports, in particular the cancellation of cereal exports. He explains in details why seed treatment cannot be left out. The article shows the active substances registered in Hungary, grouped according to their mode of action and presents the seed dressing products, available in 2005, in a tabulated form.

Seed dressing – an element of the crop management programme that must not be omitted (x)
(Dr. Tibor Fenyves)
Summit-Agro Hungary Ltd. recommends Biosild BD-t (carbendazim + diniconazole) for seed dressing of winter and spring cereals.

Seed treatment – an investment that is not to be spared on (x)
(Csaba Csorba)
Bayer CropScience draws the attention of growers and seed producing companies to Raxil seed treatment products for cereals.

What about a plus ton? (A good idea for early-sown wheat …) (x)
(Tamás Fehér)
This is Hungarian Kwizda’s recommendation for weed and virus vector control in winter wheat.

Evaluating the results of trials for response to diseases, carried out with registered winter wheat and barley varieties in 2005
(Péter Hertelendy, Zsuzsa Birta Vas)
This season was fairly good for growing winter cereals. There was no drought and crops received sufficient rainfall to grow. At the same time, not only cereals but also their diseases “used” the favourable rainy season and caused significant damages throughout the country. The specialists of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) wish to assist farmers in choosing the varieties to grow by presenting the tabulated list, by maturity groups, of the qualified winter wheat and barley varieties, indicating their response to diseases.

OTHER TECHNICAL ISSUES

The Council of Environment Ministers has taken up its position – Member State prohibitions will remain
(Ms. Cs. Vértes)
The environmental ministers held their recent meeting in Luxembourg on 24 June 2005. In contrast with the recommendation of the European Commission, the Council decided to continue with the bans of France, Greece, Germany, Luxembourg and Austria on growing GM crops.

What is the value of GrowHow fertilizers? (x)
(Dr. Erik Czinege)
This is information about the advantage of using certain POWER fertilizers distributed by Kemira GrowHow.

Applying mycorrhizas in agriculture (I). The role of mycorrhizas in natural and artificial ecosystems
(Dr. Erzsébet Jakucs)
In the past few years a number of papers of different quality have been produced in connection with mycorrhizas for various agricultural fora. However, in themselves they were not suitable for providing detailed and thorough information on the diverging issues of using mycorrhizas in agriculture, only to arouse the interest. With this paper the author launches a series of articles in order to make practitioners in agriculture and horticulture, as well as others interested in the topic familiar with the role of the symbiosis between fungi and plants, i.e. mycorrhizas in nature, as well as with the possibilities of using them in agricultural production. The first part of the series deals with the role of mycorrhizas in natural and artificial ecosystems.

Something new, something sure – in rapes (x)
(István Szabó)
Dow AgroSciences recommends its herbicide Galera (clopyralid + picloram) for the efficient weed control in rape fields in autumn.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Structure of fertilizer broadcasters (7) Application technique issues of fertilizer broadcasters
(Dr. Zoltán Csizmazia)
The author presents the issues of application technique related to fertilizer broadcasters through spinning fertilizer spreaders. The optimal working quality is a fundamental question of designing and operating such machines. It can be ensured primarily by determining the main factors influencing cross distribution of fertilizers. Among them the most important are the ones that affect the movement of fertilizer particles on the surface of spinning plate and blade, They also determine the speed and the direction of the particles compared to the direction of moving and the place where they leave the spinning plate and blade, as well as the effects on these particles during spreading in the air. The author explains how unevenness of distribution affects yields and also lets us have an insight into determining the value of unevenness of distribution by presenting the details of testing unevenness of cross and lengthwise fertilizer distribution.

Kongskilde is still full of zest (x)
(Zsolt Gazsi)
Kongskilde company draws the attention of growers to Germinator seedbed preparator and the recently released semi-direct Multiseed drill.

Väderstad clinic. Stubble needs to be taken care of that requires appropriate implements (x)
Väderstad implements (Carrier disk, Cultus Cobra/Cultus Vibra cultivator, Topdown multi-cultivator, Rollex/Rexius rollers, etc.) are suited to properly manage stubbles.

National KITE demonstrations
(Dr. György Demes)
KITE Co. invited its partners to a large-scale machine exposition titled “The use and effect of automation in crop production” held with the same programme at three places of Hungary, in Csorvás, Szentistván and Aba-Soponya. On the one hand, visitors could get acquainted with KITE’s varieties recommended for quality wheat growing. On the other hand, they could participate in a field show of machines focusing on cereal harvesting and its service, nutrient supply and navigation by remote sensing in the fields. After the demonstration, our correspondent asked the general director of the company, Mr Géza Búvár about the importance of the presented machines and technologies together with the prospects involved therein.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Budapest Bank credit for Public Warehouse warrant (x)
Budapest Bank informs on the most important questions arising in connection with their credit for Public Warehouse warrant.

Arysta LifeScience continues as a global enterprise (x)
The changes around Arysta LifeScience are presented.

Preparing education for MSc degree in Plant Medicine
The Hungarian Chamber of Plant Protection Professionals and Doctors of Plant Medicine outlines the topic of debate on this issue.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)