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Agroforum 2006 December

The gem of the feast
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Changing forestry management – up-to-date forest protection
(Dr. Szabolcs Varga, Dr. Ilona Szabó)
The changed ownership, increased social expectations, the significant role of protecting forests all make forest conservation people to think over their activity. Modern forest protection means meeting the requirements of woodland communities and the multifunctional role of forests, as well as the monitoring, prevention, mitigation and eventual eradication of factors threatening the natural processes taking place in woodlands. The programme of modern forest protection is a key task of the National Forestry Programme approved by the Hungarian Parliament in the middle of October 2004. The objectives set in order to implement an environmentally friendly, up-to-date forest protection are divided into three groups. After a short introduction, the authors give an overview of the three main tasks: forestry monitoring, prevention of damages and supporting the control of losses.

CURRENT ISSUES OF FRUIT GROWING

Lessons learned from the control of apple diseases in 2006
(Zoltán Simon)
Experience obtained in 2006 show that only those growers could protect their apples from pests who realized in time that not all the problems could be solved by pesticides. The author gives an account of the Ministerial Decree 20/2006 by re-regulating the range of active substances approved for use in integrated plant protection. In addition, he discusses the spreading, damages and control of fireblight, scab, powdery mildew and fly speck (Leptothyrium pomi), as well as highlights rainfastness of pesticides. Finally, based on the lessons learned in 2006, he presents his recommendations to help growers in the future.

Experience drawn from apple pest management in 2006
(Pál Sallai)
The advisor takes one after the other the pests (summer fruit twist, codling moth, pear leaf blister moth, apple-leaf midget, San-José scale, green apple aphid, spidery mite, the eriophyid mite Aculus schlechtendali) that caused significant damages in apple orchards in the past few years, therefore their control is a key element of the crop management programme.

Possibilities for increasing intensity of cherry production
(Katalin Király)
Increasing the intensity of production is the main global trend in the development of fruit growing. Raising the share of the surface exposed to sunlight is of primary importance that can be reached by creating smaller crown size. Reading the article, we may get to know how to obtain it. There are considerable differences among cultivars in vigour, even the training system can influence the performance of the particular cultivars. Information can also be found on the conditions and results of testing cultivars, comparing their crown forms.

The American eastern cherry fruit fly in Hungary
(Dr. Kálmán Szeőke, Dr. Zsófia Dér)
The authors give an account of the importance of the distribution of the eastern cherry fruit fly in Hungary. They point out that the newly occurring fruit fly, originating in America is a quarantine pest, therefore infested sites shall be placed under quarantine. Its control is continuously mandatory at the place of infestation; furthermore the plant protection and soil conservation service takes further restricting actions against this pest.

Overview of plant protection in small fruits in 2006
(Mária Szántó-Veszelka, Nikoletta Termann, Péter Vidó)
The article summarises the conditions of the pests and diseases of raspberries, currants and strawberries occurred in 2006.

Comparative study on suitability for intensive growing of pear cultivars
(Péter Dremák, Gitta Kocsis Molnár)
Similarly to apples, pear growing also proceeds towards improved intensity, i.e. to increase specific productive area exposed to sunlight. There are significant differences among varieties in the time of coming to bearing, characteristics of fruit-producing twigs, the proportion of stem and lateral branch circumferences. The authors present their studies on the factors influencing such tree dimensions carried out with 17 pear cultivars of the Department for Horticulture of Veszprém University, Georgikon Agricultural Faculty. Their objective was to select, based on their vigour and spur characteristics, the cultivars suitable to produce constantly high yields even on seedling rootstocks if grown in intensive orchards with narrow crop spacing. The article shows the results of the experiments, demonstrating them with figures.

A current topic every year, however, it needs more attention! Efficacy of wash-off spraying in stone fruit orchards (x)
(András Mándoki)
The professional of Summit-Agro Hungary Ltd. summarises the efficacy of wash-off spraying in stone fruits.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

The importance of loading-in of fertilizers (x)
(Roland Dudda)
Linzer Agro Trade Hungary draws the attention to the criteria of appropriate storing of fertilizers.

Weather conditions from November 2005 to October 2006
(Miklós Tóth)
In 2006 we could experience the changes of warming and cooling, as well as the effects of rainy and dry periods. In spite of this, the studied meteorological conditions did not exceed the limits of fluctuations common in our country, there were no extreme phenomena. The author analyses the meteorological characteristics and their effect on crop production month by month from November 2005 to October 2006.

Chemistry, mode of action and application of spray adjuvants (2)
(Ágoston Tóth)
In the second part of his article about spray adjuvants, the author discusses the chemical properties and mode of action of wax-derivatives, oils and their derivatives, surfactants increasing viscosity, anti-foaming agents, salts and acids. In addition, he gives the general criteria of applying spray adjuvants.

Has the world advanced through experiments? Experiences of trials with registered winter barley varieties
(Dr. György Matók, Dr. András Palágyi, Tamás Harangozó, Dr. László Czirák)
The authors give an account of the third edition of the results of trials with registered cereal varieties, to be released soon. Due to the well-known lack of resources, in the future the experiments will be conducted only with the crops covering the largest growing areas (wheat, maize, sunflowers). It is followed with presenting the experience of trials carried out with registered winter barley varieties between 1991 and 2006. Finally, we get the answer to the question put in the title, asking whether the world has advanced through experiments.

A new civil organisation on the horizon!
The article presents a new organisation, Hungarian Maize Club, founded in 2006. It outlines the establishment, basic rules, main objectives and operation, as well as the programme, website and password of the association.

Conclusions from tillage operations from July to late October 2006
(Dr. Márta Birkás)
In connection with the dry autumn, the author draws the attention to professional stubble stripping and to the errors made in the middle of summer. She gives examples to mistakes seen when evaluating summer tillage operations: 1. shallow stubble stripping, levelled soil surface, 2. careful stubble tillage under adverse soil conditions, 3. stubble operation with heavy-duty disc, leaving levelled soil surface, 4. conventional stubble tillage with heavy disc, without levelling the soil surface, 5. summer ploughing completed with levelling, 6. summer ploughing without levelling. The author presents the evaluation in the light of soil preparation for crops sown in autumn. She stresses that every mistake in soil conditions, compaction preventing the normal movement of moisture in particular, increases sensitivity of soils to climate damages and thus decreasing crop safety. The author believes that thorough knowledge of soil conditions and soil quality, together with tillage operations and crop management tailored to these will be an efficient tool that growers can use to fight the damages of the forecasted extreme climate conditions.

Harvest the yields of the new generation maize hybrids of KWS! (x)
(Sándor Nagy)
Growers’ experiences with the new-generation maize hybrids of KWS.

New challenges – Pioneer’s answers (x)
(Péter Sipos, Dr. László Piukovics)
This is Pioneer’s offer for maize, sunflower and winter rape hybrids to growers for 2007.

Experience of weed control in maize in 2006 (x)
(Dr. Imre Kovács)
BASF Hungary Ltd.’ development manager gives an account of the experience of controlling weeds in 2006.

LOOKOUT

Changing agricultural property system in France (4) Subsidy scheme for young farmers
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
In the fourth part of the series the author informs on the subsidy scheme for young farmers, giving an overview of the system for supporting the establishment: the requirements for professional skills and other criteria, as well as the subsidy forms. Furthermore, he lets readers know the payment of contributions and taxes, the process of controlling subsidised undertakings and paying back of the subsidy.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular collection of reviews of interesting articles published in foreign journals.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

The thousandth MTZ tractor has been sold this year (x)
Belarus Tractor Ltd. keeps on offering its MTZ tractors for growers.

The premises of AXIÁL has renewed in Székesfehérvár
(Dr. György Demes)
AXIÁL Ltd.’s partners had a share in an inauguration ceremony of the company’s completely refurbished premises in Székesfehérvár on 26 October 2006, headed by the minister of agriculture and rural development, József Gráf. After the ceremonial opening of the renewed facility, Zsolt Pintér, manager of AXIÁL Ltd. gave a detailed overview of this investment, AXIÁL Ltd.’s achievements and their future plans.

Tillage by turning the soil using VOGEL&NOOT method (x)
(Barabás-Gazsi)
The article summarises the advantages of using VOGEL&NOOT ploughs based on the experience of growers.

AXIÁL got among the prestigious group of „the TOP 200 companies” in Hungary
(AF)
The rewards for the Top 200 enterprises established by the journal Figyelő (meaning ‘Observer’) were handed over in the Museum of Fine Arts in October 2006. Among the rewarded GE Hungary Co., Alcoa-Köfém, and Erste Bank Hungary Co., Richter Gedeon and Hungarian Telecom, the title of the best of the TOP 200 was awarded to AXIÁL Ltd.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Seen, heard, read. Forestry areas in Hungary have reached two million hectares!
(State Forestry Service)
The State Forestry Service is pleased to announce that while in various developing countries efforts are made to stop the decrease of forest areas, woodlands have been continuously increased in Hungary in the past 80 years. As a result of mainly the afforestation of areas unsuitable for efficient agricultural use, by now the share of forestry areas is over 21 % achieved by bringing into use the two millionth hectare in November.

Experience from visiting the Hannover exhibition
(Judit Mojzer)
The brief article lets us have an insight into the international exhibition titled EuroTier organised in Hannover in 2006, with special attention to bioenergy technology.

This is the way we grow wheat at Szekszárd in autumn 2006
(Éva Gugyerás Erős)
The wheat management programme, based on reduced germ number is implemented at Dalmand and presented by a professional of Szekszárd Plant Co..

Seen. heard, read. 11th Plant Protection Forum of over-the-Tisza region
(Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
The 11th Plant Protection Forum of over-the-Tisza region was held in Debrecen in October 2006. The conference organised by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Protection focused on integrated pest management. The lectures were delivered in the plenary meeting and the parallel sections of phytopathology, entomology and herbology. Posters were also presented.

If it’s Tuesday, this must be maize!
(Norbert Rácz)
Szekszárd Plant Co., keeping its tradition of autumn-winter meetings, organised its maize exhibition titled “Maize, Hungary’s major crop”. However, differently from the previous tried and tested place of Szekszárd, in 2006 they invited the persons engaged in maize growing for meaningful talks to counties Fejér, Tolna, Bács, Somogy and Csongrád.

Seen. heard, read. Conference on environment in Balatonfüred
(Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
The Hungarian environmental conference and exhibition with the greatest past was organised for the 20th time in October 2006 by the Union of Technical and Natural Sciences Associations of county Fejér. The participants, devoted to environment protection, came together from public administration, local authorities, enterprises, institutions of education and research. The three-day-long conference gave opportunity to delivering the numerous lectures in the frame of two plenary and three thematic sessions, as well as to exchange ideas in five round-table discussions.

Greetings to the 20th anniversary of establishing MAG, a technical journal for research, development and environment
(Dr László. Bódis)

Portrait… Talk with György Bene, a small entrepreneur
(Dr. László Bódis)

Commemorating dr. József Járfás university professor
(dr. Péter Lévai)
On 16 October 2006, College of Kecskemét, Faculty of Horticulture commemorated the 10th anniversary of the death of the highly respected professor, dr. József Járfás. On the memory session the one-time colleagues and students recalled the scientific activity and literary contribution of the professor and the implementation into the practice of the integrated plant and landscape protection programme.

Born hundred years ago, died thirty years ago: dr. Kálmán Hinfner
(Dr. Pál Békési)

Seen. heard, read. An advisory system for fertilizer application practice
(Dr. György Demes)
A cooperation agreement between the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Hungarian Agricultural Chamber was signed in the headquarters of the Academy on 27 October. Pursuant to this document the Hungarian Agricultural Chamber and the regional chambers will actively take part in the practical application of the new, cost-saving and environmentally friendly advisory system for fertilizers of two Academic institutions, the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (TAKI) and the Agricultural Research Institute (MGKI).

Note for growers. About contracts
(Kurucz Miklós)
This part of the series informs Readers about the requirements of concluding contracts.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)