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Agroforum 2006 January

The month of the Blessed Virgin, January
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

International tasks and obligations in the control of plant biological bases
(Dr. Katalin Ertsey-Peregi)
The specialist of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control presents the international responsibilities and tasks of the institution. These duties have increased since Hungary’s accession to the EU as the supervision of the production and distribution of Biological Bases implies also the control of a part of the common European internal market and the observation of the common legislation and requirements. The designated national official tasks are implemented during the partly experimental and partly inspection work needing profound knowledge and professional skills. Such tasks are variety qualification and inspection of seed and propagating materials about which the author informs in a tabulated form.

The situation of variety trials and challenges at the beginning of the 21st century
(Tamás Harangozó)
The Variety Testing Division of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) launched a significant development programme in 2005. The EU accession played a significant part in this process by imposing various new technical and special administration tasks. They are summarised in the paper written by a specialist of the institute (OMMI), presenting the process of working out and revising the uniform methodology of variety testing and the elements of the improving institutional background after the EU accession. The author furthermore informs on the reorganisation of the area units of the Variety Testing Division and also deals with the international relations established in the frame of the DUS-test cooperation.

Possibilities for developing computer-aided surveillance of propagating materials
(Dr. István Bach)
The production and distribution of propagating materials take place in the frame of qualification and control/inspection systems. In the course of running the system, plenty of information is generated about the resources of propagating materials, the plant materials involved in propagation, as well as about the technical operations and the phases of placing them in the market. The generated data need to be recorded, arranged, processed and stored. The author presents the set-up and possibilities of developing their information technology background.

Inspection of grapes and fruit crops in nurseries, orchards and vineyards in 2005
(Dr. János Korbuly)
The Department for the Inspection of Vine and Fruit Reproduction Materials of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control, in addition to its primary task, performs traditional inspection of vineyards and orchards. The share of such inspection work has also gradually increased in the past few years, and in 2005 the content of the related tasks has been expanded, too. The change in the activity of the Department has been basically connected to Hungary’s becoming an EU member State. The paper from the specialist of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control gives an account of the changed technical aspects of inspecting grape and fruit propagating materials, the change in producing propagating materials, as well as of modifications in the inspection of orchards and vineyards.

Prospects for contracted growing in producing propagating materials of ornamentals
(Ms. A. Pete)
Readers may get familiar with the concept of contracted growing, its role in the system of distributing propagating material of ornamentals and the term of propagating material of ornamental plants. Furthermore, the author outlines the obligations of the contractor, as well as the benefits and possibilities of contracted growing in producing propagating material of ornamentals.

Changing relations between clients and the authority
(Dr. Sándor Bordács)
The specialist of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control gives an account of the effects of the changes in legislation regarding the quality control of forestry propagating materials due to Hungary’s EU membership. The article describes the process of certification before and after the EU accession. The characteristics, benefits and drawbacks, as well as developmental needs and possibilities in connection with the system are also dealt with.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Vegetable crops for harvesting also in winter
(Zsuzsanna Füstös)
The steady consumption of fresh vegetables is very important during the winter months for maintaining our health and working ability. The supply of fresh vegetables from imports and greenhouse growing in the markets and counters of supermarkets has significantly increased during the past few decades. In spite of this, we should not forget about those winter hardy, overwintering vegetables that can be harvested also in wintertime and are continuously available for us. The specialist of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control draws the attention to vegetables such as Savoy cabbage, Brussels sprout, collard or curly kale, leeks, Welsh onion, parsley and celery leaves suitable for winter harvesting and consumption.

About broad-leaved evergreens
(Miklós Józsa)
Broad-leaved evergreens can be found in the Hungarian flora in small numbers, only in the shrub and herb layers. The scarcity of evergreens in our forests and grooves can be primarily explained by ice-ages. In various areas of the World such an effect was not prevailing, therefore evergreen vegetation is fairly rich on those areas. In our days the number of broad-leaved evergreens in horticultural use is quite high. The current task of professionals in horticulture is to select, from the rich choice, the plants that give the highest decoration value at the particular place the whole year around, for a long time. The author wishes to outline the most important species and the varieties achieving great success.

Storing potatoes – current issues
(Péter Proksza)
The specialist of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality informs readers about the major topical issues of storing potatoes. It becomes clear from the article that the degree of losses and decrease in quality during the storage of a particular potato stock basically depends on the variety, physiological and health state of the stored potatoes and on the conditions provided in the storage facility. The alterations – losses – in crop quality and quantity are detailed, together with the jobs to do in order to mitigate storage losses.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Weather conditions in 2005. Talk with the meteorologists Károly Vissy and Vilmos Vadász
The weather during the year behind us was again rich in surprises. Laymen often experienced that seasons again did not have a “regular” pattern. Is that right that our weather has become “upside down”? This was the unprofessional question we began the interview with two well-known specialists of the National Meteorological Institute, Károly Vissy and Vilmos Vadász.

Experiences of pest management in apples in 2005
(Pál Sallai, Zoltán Simon)
The authors are of the opinion that unfortunately, in 2005 there were plenty of pest management problems difficult to solve, for some growers unsolvable problems. This year’s experiences showed that only those growers were able to protect their apples from pests and diseases who realised in time that not every problem could be solved by pesticides. The learning of 2005 draws the attention again to the high importance of creating an airy canopy and avoiding lowlands. Regarding pest control, weather was less favourable for spider mites, but rosy apple aphid and green apple aphid caused hard-to solve problems. The authors call the attention also to San José scale, the damage of which begins to impose high risks. Finally, the authors summarise the learning in pest management of year 2005.

Anyone can become a Goal-master (x)
(István Szabó)
Dow AgriSciences offers Goal 2E (oxyfluorfen) for successful weed control.

2005: the year of natural disasters, high costs and low-weigh bunches!
(Teréz Dula)
The mycologist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Heves summarises the experience obtained during 2005 in the county about the situation of grapevine protection in the season. In the first part of the article, she cross-checks the rainfall and temperature data recorded in 2005 with those of several years’ average, illustrated with a figure. It is conspicuous that 2005 was characterised by rainfall significantly exceeding many years’ average and extreme weather conditions. The author gives a detailed description of crop development in the county and of the infection conditions of the pathogens. Furthermore, she outlines the new disease problems arising from the extreme weather. Finally, the article indicates the pathogens vine growers may count on in 2006.

Another extreme year in the vineyards of the Szekszárd region
(Dr. István Füzi)
The author presents pest management situation in the Szekszárd wine-growing district during 2005. He makes clear the incidence of grapevine diseases in function of rainfall with a figure. He gives a detailed discussion, completed with figures of the epidemics caused by the major grapevine diseases – powdery mildew, downy mildew and grey mould – for 2005 and summarises the conclusions of their control. He finishes the article by indicating the prospects of grapevine diseases for 2006 in the light of the experience in 2005.

New fungicides against wheat diseases … Prosaro has been delivered!
(Dr. György Demes)
Bayer CropScience invited its major use partners and brand traders to Hotel Flamenco, Budapest to the event introducing the recently registered winter wheat fungicides on 24 November. Our correspondent lets readers have an insight in the most important ideas delivered there.

Plant protection situation in field crops 2004/2005 (2)
(Miklós Tóth, Sándor Kobza)
The specialists of the Central Service for Plant Protection and Soil Conservation give an overview of pest management problems in maize, sunflowers, sugarbeet and potatoes during the past season in the second part of their article concluding the year.

Focusing on the new generation. Syngenta’s experience in product development, 2005 (x)
(Tivadar Boncsarovszky)
This is the evaluation of product development trials with maize hybrids from Syngenta Seeds Ltd.

The new generation has arrived! KWS maize offer for 2006 (x)
This is what KWS offers among its new generation maize hybrids for growers.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
Read the brief compilation of interesting articles collected from foreign technical journals.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Vaderstad-clinic.
“Swedish implements allow us to reach stable, calculable yields together with maintaining the quality and fertility of our soils.”
(x)
The article presents the experience with Väderstad implements of Belvárdgyula Agricultural Co.

Seen heard, read. The recent member of CLAAS tractors, XREION-3300 has been introduced also in Hungary
(Dr. György Demes)
The Mechanical Engineer Faculty of Saint István University organised a technical meeting together with CLAAS SE GmbH and AXIÁL Ltd. This was the first time when the recent and biggest member of CLAAS tractors, XREION 3300 was introduced in Hungary. The importance of the event was increased by the ceremony of handing over of a first-generation XERION 3000 tractor to the Plant Protection Museum.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Reporting from Vajdahunyad castle
(AF)
This is a brief report about the jubilee celebration of 15 years of Agrofórum.

Seen heard, read. What will be the gain of 2006?!
(Dr. György Demes)
Great expectations preceded 2005’s trade reception of BASF Hungary Ltd., organised, similarly to the previous year, in the Margaret-island. The lectures delivered at the event gave an account of the year 2005, and the plans and objectives for 2006 were also outlined.

Seen heard, read. Visiting Maize-land
(Kosztolányi Attila)
This is a brief report on the maize exposition organised by Szekszárd Plant Co.

Portrait. “At the service of others” Interview with János Hetyei, the retired president of the cooperative in Adony
(Dr. László Bódis)

Seen heard, read. Successful defence of dissertation at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
(Dr. Gábor Princzinger)
An unusual debate of doctoral dissertation took place at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on 23 November 2005: Éva Lehoczky, the head of department in the Georgikon Agricultural Faculty of Veszprém University successfully defended her thesis titled “The role of weeds in the nutrient turnover of the soil-plant system”.

Book review. The element turnover of the Hungarian agriculture between 1901 and 2003. Ed.: Géza J. Kovács and Péter Csathó
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)

Note for growers. About the rights contained on the property-page
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of the series “Note” informs on the rights laid down in the record keeping of properties, better known as property-page, related to possessing and using real estates.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)