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Agroforum 2006 March

Other Month of Lent: March
(Dr. Bódis László)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Pesticide registration reform in the European Union
(Dr. Gábor Tőkés)
The author informs on the new, planned system of the drastically changed pesticide registration procedure of the European Commission. Compared to the mixed system effective since 1991, the member countries would have a minimal voice in the approvals, while various modifications would enter into force in favour of the major companies. We may read in details about the situation regarding pesticide registration, the elements of the draft procedure and its core point. We also have an overview of the possible consequences and an insight in the decision-making process. The piece of legislation may enter into force in 2009 or 2010.

Information on the registered and withdrawn active substances of pesticides
(Tibor Baranyi)
The article gives complete and updated (as of February 2006) information prepared by the Central Service for Plant Protection and Soil Conservation on the use of the registered and withdrawn active substances in Hungary, in compliance with the EU requirements.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Sustainable nutrient supply in a simple and cost-efficient way
(Dr. Sándor Szalóki, Dr. Ildikó Szalóki Zima)
While science and practice is under way towards the implementation of precision nutrient supply, it is the experience that governs nutrient supply practice in Hungarian agriculture. By that, the authors draw the attention to the fact that technical advising has not been adapted to the changed circumstances. They inform on the tools they have prepared for growers to help them simply calculate the amount of nutrients removed from the field with the harvested crop and being aware of this, make the nutrient balance for each field every year. This is the most important and reliable basis for sustainable nutrient management. They show and explain, in a tabulated form, the equations suitable for calculating the amounts of nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O) found in the main and by-products of certain field crops. Such simple calculation methods allow estimating the nutrient balance, furthermore express the nutrient quantity for 1 t/ha main product and the specific nutrient content of the whole plant.

Situation report in spring about seeds
(Zoltán Benke, László Rényi, Dr. Levente Tas)
The specialists of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) evaluate seed supply in spring cereals, maize and sunflowers for this season, based on the experience of seed growing and certification in 2005. They give an account of the seed growing area, the seed volume, the number of propagated varieties and the effect of weather conditions on seed production.

No need to be afraid of white rot! Let’s prevent damage by using KONI WG! (x)
(Tivadar Mathiász)
Hungarian Kwizda recommends Koni WG (Coniothyrium minitans) to prevent white rot in sunflowers.

Studying the relationship of varieties and sowing time, its application in sunflower growing
(László Zsombik, Dr. Péter Pepó)
Considering that, among the elements of the crop management programme, sowing time has a significant impact on crop yields, the authors believe it is justified to study it in this aspect. There have been studies on the yield effects of sowing time at the Crop Production and Landscape Ecological Department of the Debrecen University for ten years. Comparing the studied hybrids, the authors present their annual results between 1999 and 2004. They concluded that in the average of years and hybrids, the highest yields were obtained for the early sowing times.

Recent data on the response of sunflower hybrids to crop density
(András Szabó, Dr. Péter Pepó)
The range of the currently available hybrids is fairly wide in view of crop quality and quantity, at the same time there are shortcomings in crop safety of the hybrids. In order to solve this problem, we need to make efforts for optimising agronomic factors (sowing time and crop density), based on the trials with such factors. The authors outline the results of crop density trials, growing 10 hybrids at 5 different crop densities. They inform on the obtained yields, analyse the relationship between the level of infection by Diaporthe helianthi and crop density. Finally, they give an overall evaluation of the hybrids based on the data on the number of plants per hectare, biological bases, as well as on the incidence of Diaporthe and head diseases.

Anyone may win with GOAL in 2006! (x)
(Attila Takács, István Szabó)
Dow AgroSciences recommends its grower partners to use Goal, the oxyfluorfen herbicide that gives reliable efficacy under any weather conditions.

Chemical weed control in sunflowers
(Zsuzsanna Hoffmann Pathy)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Somogy summarises the possibilities for chemical weed control in sunflowers. She begins with stating that up-to-date- biological bases are available for sunflower growing, variety choice is rich, however crop yields can be increased only by applying cultural techniques at a higher level. She provides a comprehensive picture of weed populations, informing on the weeds that cause problems in sunflowers. The herbicides registered for use in the particular management programmes for sunflowers in 2006 are presented in a tabulated form, the application alternatives (prepalanting, incorporated in the soil; preemergence; in-crop treatment) and the special means of control are also dealt with in details.

This is the way they do. Rape growing practice in Pápa and Megyaszó. Report.
(Dr. László Bódis)
Talk with rape growers about the management programme of the crop, market situation and prospects.

Silage maize recommendation from KWS. A lot of silage in high quality! (x)
(Dr. Sándor Nagy)
Brief information about the silage maize hybrids (Dante, KWS 1398, Karen, KWS 0551) KWS recommends for 2006.

The importance of biological bases in maize growing
(Dr. Mihály Sárvári, Éva Babett Ábrahám, Balázs Pálovics)
Safety of maize growing is determined by the harmony of ecological conditions, biological bases and the elements of cultural techniques. Among them, the specialists of the Agricultural Centre of the Debrecen University draw the attention to the conspicuous development of biological bases. In our days the availability of biological bases is excellent, the hybrids involved in commercial growing possess advanced biological background. The authors point out that, as a result of the purposeful breeding work, productivity of the hybrids and their capacity to use water and nutrients are continuously improving. At the same time, they summarise their recommendations for growers about the suitable hybrids and the criteria against which hybrids should be selected for production.

Western corn rootworm – public enemy No. 1 in maize (x)
(István Sebestyén)
Hungarian Kwizda proposes Furadan 10G-t (carbofuran) for soil treatment against western corn rootworm larvae.

Syngenta pest management in agro-environment programmes (x)
(Csilla József)
Syngenta Ltd. outlines the company’s pest management programmes meeting the requirements also of agro-environment programmes.

Weed control in sugarbeet, 2006 (x)
(László Farády)
Bayer CropScience recommends Betanal Expert (phenmedipham+ desmedipham + ethofumesate) and Betanal Echo (phenmedipham + desmedipham) for sugarbeet growers to achieve successful weed control in the crop.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Dangerous pests. Noctuids II.
(Dr. Béla Herczig, Dr. Kálmán Szeőke, Dr. Péter Gyulai, Dr. Géza Vörös)
This part of the series discusses the details of taxonomy, morphology, biology, ecology, damages and food plants, as well as the forecasting conditions for certain noctuids.

Pest management in soft fruits in 2005
(Nikoletta Terman, Zsuzsanna Jánoska)
The authors give an account of plant protection during the past year in raspberries, currants and strawberries. They assess the growth of the particular crops, the development of the diseases and the occurrence of pests and the caused damages, discussing their relations with weather conditions.

The seasonal flight of carpenter moths in 2005
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt, Dr. Miklós Tóth, Dr. István Szarukán)
Plant protection concept and the pest management programmes in fruit growing have undergone significant changes in the past few years. The wide-spectrum pesticides so harmful to humans and the environment have fallen in the background, their use in the EU is either prohibited or will be prohibited within a short time. However, certain pests that have been „covered” by complex pest management programmes have got out of control, therefore their population densities and area of distribution are increasing. Among them, there are the carpenter moths living in the wood of fruit trees, such as leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina) and goat moth (Cossus cossus). The authors show the damage caused by them on fruit trees and give an account of the results and the conclusions of their flight observations using sex pheromone traps in 2005.

Applying mycorrhizas in agriculture (IV) Application of ecto-mycorrhizas in forestry
(Dr. Erzsébet Jakucs, Dr. Tamás Barna)
The fourth part of the series on the agricultural uses of mycorrhizas gives a detailed description on ecto-mycorrhizas. They inform not only on the biology and symbiotic plant partners of such fungi but also describe the effect of applying them in afforestation and the possibilities for using them in Hungary.

Lessons learned in chickpea growing in Kompolt
(Dr. István Geczki)
The author completes an earlier report with this article. After describing the international situation of chickpeas, he outlines the results of farm-level seed production of the crop in Kompolt (growing area, yields, rainfall during the growing season) for the period of 1993-2005. Finally, he raises problems and questions in connection with the Hungarian chickpea production.

A new crop is born (x)
(István Tamás)
This article informs on the company’s programme “Supplying nutrients and protecting the crop” that is the philosophy of Hungarian Kwizda in crop production.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)

Read the brief reviews of interesting articles published in foreign technical journals.

Changing agricultural property system in France (2) Modifications in the structure of land property from the end of the 19th century to 1992
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
The author describes the hundred-year history of changes in the structure of land property taken place in the French agriculture from the end of the 19th century. We may get the answers to the following questions: What kind of concentrations occurred in the property system affecting almost 6 million small holdings? How did the organisation of cereal cooperatives begin? How did the cooperative form strengthen?

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Under the magnifying glass… (37.) MASCAR FUTURA Maxi precision drill
(Dr. József Fűzy, Győző Mészáros)
This part of the series puts the MASCAR FUTURA Maxi precision drill under the magnifying glass. The article gives the major characters, structural parts and operation of the Italian precision drill, tabulating the major technical data. This is followed by describing the conditions and methods of testing in maize sown with MASCAR FUTURA Maxi precision drill. The authors publish the most important characteristics for performance, working quality, energetics and operation based on the testing results. Finally, they present their proposals for users prepared from their conclusions.

Innova Agro Ltd.: the new trading partner of HORSCH (x)
From 1st January 2006, HORSCH Maschinen GmbH is represented by a new machine trader, Innova Agro Ltd. in Hungary. The company is ready to answer any question of growers in connection with HORSCH techniques.

Machinery costs in 2006
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
In order to enhance the success of growing, the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering (MGI) works out and publishes its forecast for the average performance and costs of agricultural power machines and implements (machine groups), calculating from the data of the observed basis farms and considering the expected prices and wages, as well as other costs. The data, provided by the specialist of the Institute in a tabulated form, give guidance for calculating the costs of operations and prices, furthermore, for checking the operation data of power machines and implements of growers.

A Information about the Federation of Contractors for Agricultural Machinery Services
(Péter Körmendi)
The Federation of Contractors for Agricultural Machinery Services presents their compilation about the changes in servicing fees reflecting the prices in the first part of 2005 (costs of machines, spare-parts, material and wages with charges, etc.) based on the fact data for 2004. The provide data in a tabulated form.

Orchard sprayers
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
The author from the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering presents the requirements orchard sprayers have to comply with and the guidelines growers should follow when choosing their machines. He informs on the nozzle types, their structures and system used in the most common sprayers. Furthermore, he deals with the possibilities for applying the up-to-date plant-recognising system allowing to reduce spray losses and to protect the environment.

Vaderstad-clinic. Why is it worthwhile buying TOPDOWN multicultivator, when there are so many other similar ones on the market? (x)
Väderstad informs on the versatile tillage operations TOPDOWN multicultivator can perform.

A new mobile sprayer from FARMGÉP Ltd.
(Dr. György Demes)
People visiting the exhibition booth of Farmgép Ltd in AGRO+MASHEXPO could see a very sought-after machine that was missing from the Hungarian machinery choice for a long time. The machine attracting many visitors was an easily recognisable sprayer with high clearance. It was a mobile sprayer named HOUSEHAM 3000 L AIR-RIDE. Mr. Robert Willey, the owner-director of Hauseham Sprayers and SPRAYCARE, gave a brief technical characterisation about it during the talk with our correspondent.

Seen, heard, read. The 24th International Agricultural and Agri-machine Exposition, AGRO+MASHEXPO closed
(Dr. György Demes)
The four-day-long, 24th AGRO+MASHEXPO, the international agricultural and agri-machine exhibition closed in the Budapest Fair Centre of Hungexpo on 11 February, where altogether 184 Hungarian machine manufacturers and distributors displayed their products and services. Visitors could take part in various conferences and fora during the four-day-long exhibition. Readers may have an insight into the more interesting ones.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Book review. Márta Birkás: Soil cultivation and land use
Among this year’s new publications of ‘Mezőgazda Publisher’, we find the work titled “Soil cultivation and land use”. The new textbook provides up-to-date and useful knowledge on tillage, fertilizer application, weed control and crop rotation for reliably basing crop production, suited to the urgent needs of practice.

Seen, heard, read. Launching the season with Bayer CropScience by the bank of the Danube
Bayer CropScience held a publicity meeting on 10 February 2006, marking the beginning of the season. The managers of the companies involved in the agrochemicals trade were invited to the event. The delivered presentations allowed participants to get acquainted with the results achieved by Bayer CropScience in the global pesticide market and in Hungary during 2005. Furthermore, the company showed its product range for 2006.

Seen, heard, read. The list is of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering is ready for 2006
Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering (MGI) published the list of plant protection machines registered for marketing in 2006. The Institute makes the machine list available for growers free of charge. Qualification of machines is performed by MGI in compliance with the requirements laid down in the Hungarian Plant Protection Act.

Note for growers… The key issues of machinery association
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of the series informs on the machinery association that is a special organisation of growers. The machine owners make available their machines when not used by themselves for the associated growers if they need them. The continuous help for each other is the interest of each member of the machinery association, so all of them take advantage of this system. In particular, they settle accounts with each other at cost prices that are due to each member of the machinery association, as annually agreed in advance.

Portrait. Ferenc Isztin, chief executive of Dombegyház Agro Co.
(Dr. László Bódis)
This is a talk with Mr. Ferenc Lisztin, the chief executive of Dombegyház Agro Co. about successful farming, the future of Hungarian agriculture and the situation of young professionals in agriculture.

Crimson clover of Lovászpatona is 50 years old
(Gábor Füsti Molnár)
On 21 October 2005, the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding of the Georgikon Agricultural Faculty in Veszprém University held a commemoration and unveiling of a memorial plaque in Keszthely on the 40th anniversary of the death of plant breeder Miklós Horn, the founder and leader of the breeding station at Lovászpatona. The author reports on the brief lecture about seed growing of crimson clover of Lovászpatona.

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)