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Agroforum 2006 September

Rocky wall
(Dr. Bódis László)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

The effect of climate change on the mechanisation issues of crop management programmes
(Dr. István J. Jóri)
The article begins with defining the term of climate protection and outlining the adaptation programmes counteracting the adverse effects of climate change. It continues with analysing the impact of climate on agriculture and water regime. The effect of human activity on the environment is also covered. Then he deals with highlighting one of the most important common tasks of Hungarian environment protection and agriculture that includes the reasonable use, protection and maintaining the multifunctional role of our soils as a natural resource. The author describes all the developmental results and statements achieved in working out environmentally friendly soil cultivation and sowing techniques, furthermore, he recommendations certain tasks to set in order to solve the problems in mechanisation and to efficiently meet the challenge of climate change.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Deep loosening for improving tillage quality
(Dr. János Nagy, Dr. Tamás Rátonyi, Dr. Attila Megyes)
Physical degradation of soil (compaction and structural breakdown) has become a global problem by now. According to certain data, in Hungary 19 % of the agricultural land are situated on adversely compacted subsoil. This is why the authors summarise the factors causing soil compaction, their effect on soil condition and the possibilities for preventing this adverse situation (deep tillage with and without turning).

The impact of fertilizer application on winter wheat quality
(Dr. Zoltán Győri)
After his article on wheat quality issues, the author examines the impact of nutrients on crop quality. Based on the conducted studies, he presents the effect of various NPK fertilizer regimes and the different seasons on the protein and wet gluten contents, as well as on baking quality, Hagberg’s falling number and Zeleny’s sedimentation value of the particular winter wheat varieties. The qualification of wheat flour measured by alveograph and extensograph is also described. Summarising the effect of fertilizer application, the author concluded that without reasonable NPK application, wheat of appropriate quality cannot be grown.

Students’ page. How to select soil preparation system for winter wheat?
(Zsolt Nagy)
The author presents the results of his trial carried out in the vicinity of Abony. He discusses soil conditions produced by different tillage systems (with ploughing, disking, loosening, cultivatoring and the so-called “Väderstad-technology”), tillage profitability and the relationship between soil conditions and winter wheat yields.

Response of registered cereal varieties to diseases in trials carried out in 2006
(Péter Hertelendy, Zsuzsanna Birta Vas)
The article gives an account, completed with tables, of the results of trials carried out by the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control in 2006 with the registered winter wheat, winter triticale, winter and spring barley varieties for their response to diseases.

Take-all disease of winter wheat
(Dr. László Réthy, Aurél Dandó, Dr. Pál Békési)
The article describes the damage occurred at Somodorpuszta in 2005. Severe losses caused by take-all disease in monoculture winter wheat were recorded. The paper deals with the outbreak and symptoms of the disease and the laboratory tests of the plant samples. Several questions are not answered, e.g. “What is the reason why the disease has almost disappeared from winter wheat fields by 2006 in spite of the continued monoculture?

Triticale – a valuable cereal for poor soils
(Dr. József Kruppa)
After considering the importance and varieties (‘Hungaro’ for food and feed), as well as the ecological requirements and production sites of triticale, the author deals with the crop management elements: preceding, tillage, nutrient supply, sowing, plant protection and harvesting. He draws the attention to this crop, suitable for cost-efficient growing in poor lands and for providing a new raw material for food industry.

A new planthopper introduced from America …
(Dr. István Winkler, Ákos Balogh, Katalin Fürst)
The specialists of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of Budapest and County Pest draw the attention to the spread in Europe and Hungary of the citrus flatid planthopper (Metcalfa pruinosa) introduced from America. They discuss the biology and damage of the pest, and present the options for its agronomic, biological and chemical control.

The effect of the first EU intervention on the Hungarian cereal market based on modelling
(Norbert Kató, Zsuzsanna Jancsok, Judit Nógrádi)
In Hungary 3.9 million tons of cereals were bought up for intervention in the cereal market season of 2004/2005. It demonstrates the beneficial effect of intervention that yielded an extra sum of HUF 2930 per ton and HUF 16408 per hectare for growers. As the free-market prices did not reach the intervention prices, the costs of cereal-users were lower and the competitiveness of their products was increasing by that. Based on model calculations, the authors show the surplus income of market players, obtained from cereal intervention in 2004/2005, and the crop volume they should have produced in order to reach in the free market a price equal to the intervention one.

Seen, heard, read. Rapes in incubator
(AF)
The Szekszárd Plant Co. held a rape growing meeting in Kaposvár on 8 August. The venue of the event titled “The tricks of rape growing from sowing to winter” was Somogy-Flandria Incubator house. There were small- and large-scale farmers, representatives of enterprises and private farmers among the participants. They shared their experiences with each other on the problems and results of growing and the critical points of the crop management programme.

More than a month until wheat sowing …
(Dr. László Bódis)
This is the author’s opinion about wheat issues, prospects, current problems and their solutions.

Weed control in winter rape (x)
(Attila Takács)
Dow AgroSciences presents its weed control recommendation for winter rape growers.

Winter wheat management programmes in practice
(Dr. László Bódis)
In our August number we published the recommended rape management programme of certain leading Hungarian farms in a tabulated form for operations in autumn. This time – before starting wheat sowing – similar tables are shown, hoping that this information will help wheat growers in fine-tuning their crop management programmes.

Trials for developing a crop management programme in winter rapes
(Dr. Csaba Gyuricza, Péter Mikó)
The authors give an account of their trial established in the Crop Production Demonstration Farm of Szent István University in 2005-2006 in order to study the effect of particular Hungavit products on the growth, development and yields of rapes. The parameters observed in the study were: growth vigour, crop density, plant height, root-collar diameter, pod number, seed number per pod, yield and oil content. Trial results are tabulated.

Pioneer MAXIMUSä released hybrid rapes for Europe
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., the subsidiary company of DuPont introduced MAXIMUSä hybrid rape in Europe. The company, leading in semi-dwarf hybrid rapes, has much expectation towards these rapes revolutionizing production of the crop, as there is an increasing demand for rape seed in the continent in parallel with the expanding market of oil seeds and bio-fuels.

High yields, outstanding crop quality (x)
(István Pais)
Biolife 2000 Co. recommends HUNGAVIT plant conditioners and foliar fertilizers for rape growers.

Rape management programmes in practice (2.) – yields
(Dr. László Bódis)
“Rape management programmes in practice” – it was the title of the article in the August number of Agrofórum where we presented, in a tabulated form, the winter rape programme implemented by five rape-growing farms. We believe it is also necessary to inform our Readers on the varieties and hybrids, the growers – producing under different conditions and applying partly different crop management programmes, but doing it at an advanced level and on considerable areas – are using.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
We may get to know the effect of lime-treated sewage sludge compost on soil biology from the article reviewing a foreign paper.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Väderstad country-tour aroused keen interest everywhere (x)
(Dr. Demes György)
Visitors attending the Väderstad shows during the country-wide tour could closely examine Väderstad implements (Carrier 500 disk, Cultus 420, TopDown 400 cultivator, NZ-Aggressive 600 cultivator, Rexius 820 roller and Rapid A 600 drill) and the Massey Ferguson tractors operating them.

A coulter that “combs” straw out of the soil (x)
(Zoltán Szász)
It covers the advantages of HORSCH Sprinter seeding cultivator for growers applying tillage without ploughing.

Can HORSCH Tiger field cultivator replace plough? (x)
(Zoltán Szász)
A Czech technical journal published the results of a test comparing HORSCH Tiger 4 AS field cultivator and a reversible plough with seven plough bodies. The test revealed that using the same tractor, the difference between the operation costs are tremendous to the advantage of the Horsch implement.

Väderstad-clinic. Flat discs revolutionize tillage practice
(x)
The advantages of Carrier flat disks are shown from the point of view of Väderstad machines .

Calm-therapy in the way of agri-machine manufacturer or VOGEL & NOOT ploughs in the focus
(x)
Growers’ experience about the benefits of using VOGEL & NOOT ploughs.

Preparing the spray
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
The expert of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering summarises the spray preparation process. He presents the most important steps of spray preparation and the technology of material transport and feeding. The article deals with the different types of mixing equipments, mechanic and hydraulic mixers, as well as the structure and operation of mixing towers and the legal provisions for handling emptied containers.

Under the magnifying glass… (39.) MEGAFEX 2000T organic manure spreading trailer
(Zsolt Kassai)
This part of the series puts MEGAFEX 2000T organic manure spreading trailer under the magnifying glass. The author gives an account of the main technical characteristics, structure and operation of the organic manure spreading trailer, tabulating the most important data. The expert of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering continues with describing the objective, conditions and methods of the laboratory and field testing of MEGAFEX 2000T organic manure spreading trailer, informing on the most important data on output, working quality, energetics and operation. We find trial experiences and recommendations for users at the end of the paper.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Applying mycorrhizas in agriculture (VI) Possibilities and problems of artificial mycorrhization
(Dr. Erzsébet Jakucs, Dr. Gábor M. Kovács)
The authors outline the conditions and reasons of introducing artificial mycorrhization in Hungary, and highlight the problems of applying artificial mycorrhizas in the country. The series finishes with presenting recommendations for regulating artificial mycorrhization in Hungary.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Once again about rapes …
(Ferenc Tyukász)
This is a brief article on the reasons why it is worthy dealing with rape growing on the long run.

From the preceding to the harvest. Wheat growing in another way
(Norbert Rácz)
Béla Macháty, the deputy director general of crop production, introduced wheat growing system with reduced seed quantity in Dalmand Co. a few years ago. The report summarises its core points.

New credit guarantee for agricultural entrepreneurs. Press release
Based on the agreement between Budapest Bank and the Rural Credit Guarantee Foundation, from now on Bank clients in the agricultural food industry and rural development sector may apply for a credit guarantee for their factoring contracts.

Book review. Heszky, L., Fésüs, L., and Hornok, L.: Agricultural biotechnology
(Dr. László Bódis)
Readers interested in biotechnology, in particular in “Agricultural biotechnology” may take this book, big in size and heavy both physically and in content, in their hands. The work on more than three hundred pages is divided into three main chapters: microbe biotechnology, plant biotechnology and molecular plant breeding and animal biotechnology. Read the review to have a look inside the details of the particular chapters.

Portrait… Talk with Katalin Jármy
(Dr. László Bódis)
This is an interview with Katalin Jármy, the co-owner of Bélápa Equestrian Center.

Legal page. Environmental risks of pesticides harmful to fauna and flora
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
Our legal adviser informs on a lawsuit between an entrepreneur and a fishing association. It took place because the insecticide applied by the entrepreneur in the field had got in the water reservoir next to the cultivated land causing fish death there.

Note for growers. Exciting programmes also in this year’s ploughing competitions
(Dr. György Demes)
The representatives of the Hungarian Plough Competition Association informed the correspondents of the technical journals in Budapest in July 2006 about the programme of this year’s events, called their attention to the venue and time of the European championship in Austria and the world championship in Ireland.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)