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Agroforum 2007 April

Wait until the sun rises!
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Focusing on weed control in maize, criteria for selecting herbicides
(László Szentey)
Maize, with its 1.3 million hectare area, ranks second among field crops. Accordingly, being our major row-crop, controlling its weeds is of strategic importance. Chemical weed control is an essential and decisive element of the maize management programme as seed dressing. This is why the author gives a brief overview of the history of weed control in maize, and also deals with the methods of applying herbicides.

Farm experience with the hybrid Mv 251 (x)
(Tamás Árendás, Emil Bodnár)
Bázismag (“Basic seeds”) Ltd. and the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences recommend growers to use the hybrid Mv 251.

AccentÒ 75 DF – a herbicide for maize from DuPont (x)
(Dr. Elemér Tóth, István Rácz)
DuPont highlights the advantages of Accent 75 DF (nicosulfuron) for weed control in maize.

Chemical weed control in cereals
(Dr. Gabriella Benécs Bárdi, Ákos Balogh)
Linked to their article published in number 3 (March) of our journal, the authors give a tabulated summary of the products with active substances registered for use in cereals, indicating the dosage to be applied in the particular crops.

Which is the best way of weed control? (x)
(Gyula Bakodi, Tamás Fehér)
This is the offer of Hungarian Kwizda for weed control in maize.

Bayer’s scheme for cereals (x)
(László Farády)
This is the range of pesticides Bayer CropScience recommends for cereal growers.

Fodder sorghum for feeds and bioenergy
(Mihály Pál, Dr. Erzsébet Rajki)
The climate in our planet Earth has become extreme in the past few years due to environmental pollution and global warming. Gases provoking glasshouse effect are emitted to the atmosphere in increasing volumes. Such processes will cause warming and desertification according to the long-term forecasts. It is reasonable to grow crops possessing good adaptation capacity and tolerance to drought, allowing producers to improve crop safety. One of such plants is fodder sorghum, a prospective crop of the newly launched energy programmes. This is why the authors summarise the management programme of fodder sorghums (grain and silage, Sudan grass), as well as they list the available major varieties and describe them.

Simulation study of applying liquid manure on nitrate sensitive areas
(Dr. Nándor Fodor, Dr. Gabriella Máthé Gáspár, Dr. Klára Pokovai, Dr. Géza Kovács, Dr. Tamás Németh)
The objectives of agricultural system models are to describe the processes taking place in the atmosphere-soil-plant system with mathematical methods and to simulate them with computers. The application of liquid manures on nitrate-sensitive areas is a critical environmental issue from the point of view of nitrate load of groundwaters. The investigators of the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (RISSAC) were seeking the answers to the following questions in order to decide if the proposed EU restrictions are justified or not: Is it necessary to prolong the period when liquid manure disposal is prohibited in Hungary, considering weather and soil conditions, as well as the volume of the produced liquid manure and the structure of crop production? In compliance with the same criteria, is the four-month-period for storing liquid manure enough in Hungary? The study was based on the simulation results of the computer-aided crop protection model 4M.

Spring greetings with wheat – experience in Tordas
(János Derecskei)
The specialist of the Plant Variety Experimental Station at Tordas of the Central Agricultural Office summarises their experience about the effect of the extreme winter weather in cereals involved in the trials. Considering the situation, he draws the attention to certain issues that growers of winter cereals need to think over.

About using fungicides in winter cereals
(Csaba Novák)
A year has passed again, and cereal growers face the problems of planning the fungicide management programme for spring: will one treatment be enough or two ones are needed? To support this decision, the specialist of the Directorate responsible for Plant Protection and Soil Conservation of the Agricultural Office of County Somogy discusses the main criteria which need to be considered when determining the exact dates of treatment, selecting an appropriate fungicide and its dosage. Finally, he gives a tabulated summary of the fungicides recommended for the first and the second application in cereals.

Acanto® – strobilurin from DuPont (x)
(Sándor Bálint, Dr. Attila Cs. Tóth, Dr. Elemér Tóth)
This year DuPont recommends growers to use Acanto (picoxystrobin) to control leaf diseases of cereals.

Bending the straight line Information about a nutrient supply advisory system
(Mária Regős, Dr. Erik Czinege)
The authors give the reasons why they decided to develop their nutrient supply advisory system. They follow with describing the steps of determining the quantities of fertilizers to be applied. Finally, they outline the possible outputs of the program.

How will fertilizers be applied in spring 2007? (x)
(Roland Dudda)
This is the offer of Linzer Agro Trade Hungary Ltd. for spring application of fertilizers in rapes and winter wheat.

The results of fertilizer application trials in sunflowers carried out by KWS–Nitrogen Works (x)
(Tamás Lengyel, Dr. Sándor Nagy)
KWS and Nitrogénművek (“Nitrogen Works”) publish the results of their joint trials carried out in sunflowers with fertilizers targeting professional and environmentally friendly sunflower growing.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This brief review of an article published in a foreign journal is about the effect on soybean germination of Diaporthe/Phomopsis isolates obtained from soybean and velvetleaf.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Agricultural swap bodies supported from EU projects (x)
Eurotrade Ltd. recommends TATRA trucks and their different, variable swap bodies for growers.

Novelties from Massey Fergusson
(Dr. György Demes)
Austro Diesel GmbH is the exclusive distributor of Massey Ferguson agricultural machines in Central and East Europe. In February, they organised a large-scale event to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the company in Vienna, inviting more than four hundred dealers from Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. The jubilee ceremony was completed with an exhibition of almost the whole range of Massey Ferguson tractors, drills and harvesters. Based on what he saw and heard there, our correspondent reports on the recent models of Massey Ferguson tractors designed for operations in field crops.

Vaderstad-clinic. Why is it worth purchasing a TOPDOWN multi-cultivator… (x)
TOPDOWN multi-cultivator – recommended by Väderstad.

Vogel-Noot is 135 years old! (x)
The biggest manufacturer of ploughs in the European Union celebrates its 135th anniversary. On this occasion they released a limited number of mounted reversible ploughs under the name Golden Edition.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Outstanding persons of our agricultural history:  Ignác Darányi (1849-1927)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month our journal presents the life and activity of Ignác Darányi.

Note for growers. About the lessons learned during a survey
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of the “Notes” summarises the inquiry about how much the particular agricultural journals are known and read. The experience was presented on the“Agro-marketing and media day” at Agro-Mashexpo.

Portrait. Interview with dr. László Heszky
(Dr. László Bódis)
The head of the Department for Genetics and Plant Breeding of Szent István University speaks about the views regarding genetically modified organisms.

Legal page. Protecting biological bases
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
The legal advisor gives an overview of two, recently published decrees that were enacted in order to protect genetic bases of the flora and fauna.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)

ANNEX OF VEGETABLE AND FRUIT GROWING

VEGETABLE GROWING

Growing French beans in the field
(Dr. Katalin Slezák)
The author deals with the crop ranking 7 among vegetables in Hungary in terms of area, and with its outdoor growing, in particular. She gives a detailed description of criteria for selecting varieties, furthermore, the key elements of soil preparation, fertilizer application, propagation, cultural operations and harvesting.

Outdoor growing of kapia peppers
(Dr. János Gyúrós)
The author gives an account of the characteristics of kapia peppers, its origin, uses and the commonly grown varieties. Readers may have an insight into the aspects of selecting the production sites and preparing the soil, as well as into the steps of the crop management programme developed for this type of peppers, such as seedbed preparation, nutrient supply, soil cover with small plastic tunnel or veil foil, propagation, irrigation and harvesting.

Greenhouse growing of eggplants
(Dániel Tompos)
Eggplant, also called “Turkish tomato” in Hungary, is a plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. This perennial crop is closely related to potato, and requires warm conditions. In spite of the fact that eggplant has a very long history of growing, its greenhouse production is relatively new. Therefore the author summarises the most important issues of selecting the variety, preparing the soil, growing young plants, harvesting and preparing fruits for the market.

Squash production
(Noémi Kappel)
The investigator of Budapest Corvinus University presents squashes, such as vegetable marrow, courgette and patisson. The crop can be grown outdoors with direct seeding and transplanting. The author discusses the elements of the crop management programme (tillage, nutrient supply, cultural operations). The key points of greenhouse growing are also mentioned.

About chemical weed control in melons
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)
The range of herbicides registered for use in cucurbit crops in Hungary is rather narrow. The choice is even poorer for weed control in melons. This is why the author lists the available active substances, giving tabulated information on their efficacy against the most common weeds occurring in such crops.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
You may find a review of an article published in a foreign technical journal, calling for including the old plant varieties in the common EU List of Varieties in order to preserve them as genetic resources.

FRUIT GROWING

Improving shelf life of certain apple cultivars by treatment with SmartFresh
(László Csiszár)
The introduction of SmartFresh technology about five years ago was a significant step towards advanced-level fruit storage. With its efficiency in minimizing the adverse effects of ethylene, the product may rightly deserve the interest of Hungarian fruit growers. The investigator of the research and advisory company for fruit growing gives a detailed presentation of the product, its active substance, mode of action and effect. Finally he outlines the conditions and results of the trials they carried out in the research station contracted by the manufacturer.

Increasing cultivar choice in pears
(Zsolt Szani)
Hungarian pear production has conspicuously decreased in the past few years. In addition to the reduction of our pear exports, significant volumes of import products are arriving, mainly in the winter months. It often happens that imports are considerable also in varieties that used to be successfully grown before. The adverse process could be mitigated if the range of varieties were enlarged by ones with good shelf life and, at the same time, are of high fruit quality and more suitable for growing under Hungarian conditions. With this in mind, the author evaluates certain, less well-known pear cultivars.

Apple protection overview from certain European countries
(Csaba Lovász)
A professional of Bayer CropScience prepared a presentation dealing with a proposal for developing a European apple protection programme for this year’s apple symposium. He gathered information from German, Dutch, Spanish and Austrian colleagues addressing the problems occurred in 2006, also asking for the solutions they recommended. The author shares the questions and answers with readers.

New strawberry cultivars on the National List
(Szilvia M. Deák)
Strawberry is the small fruit with one of the largest areas. Its importance is explained by the fact that this is our first fresh fruit after the winter period so poor in vitamins. Planting costs may be returned early, already in the next season. However, the selection of suitable cultivars is essential for successful commercial fruit growing. Therefore the author presents certain strawberry varieties recently included in the National List.

Dangerous pests (II/10) Plum fruit moth
(Tamás Hegyi, Mária Szántó Veszelka)
This part of the series on dangerous pests takes plum fruit moth under the magnifying glass. Readers may get to know the economic importance, taxonomy, host plants, geographic distribution, biology, as well as the natural enemies, forecasting and the control of the pest.

Advisory service and information transfer in agriculture
(Attila Simon)
The role of information has highly increased in the agricultural sector, therefore, in addition to the well-known key issues of production, information shortage has become a vital topic. Information as a value is particularly significant because of the more and more fierce competition on the market. The European Union expects Hungary to organise and operate a new, transparent, professional advisory service, similar to the ones managed in the “older” member states. The author highlights the weak points of the Hungarian advisory service, and outlines the trends of reasonable changes.

About integrated fruit production from the point of view of an advisor
(Sándor Király)
The author describes the term of integrated crop production, the aim of such system, and follows with presenting the characteristics of integrated fruit growing. Finally, he shares his several years’ experience obtained as an advisor and a grower with readers.

Tractors in Villány
Agrolánc („Agro-chain”) draws the attention of grapevine growers to Antonio Carraro tractors.

Controlling early scab
(Imre Barkaszi)
Under this title you may read what Arysta LifeScience recommends growers to control apple scab.