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Agroforum 2007 August

Summer is over…
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Shall we take away the possibility of organic matter supply from soil?
(Dr. Márta Birkás)
The author objects to the use of stubble residues for heating. She puts the question whether sustainable agriculture can be reached on the cost of physical, nutrient and biological degradation of soils. In order to be able to grow, on the long run and safely, any crop for food, feed, seed or green manure, etc. in our fields, fertility, physical and biological conditions of the soils should be maintained, preferably even improved, and the climate sensitivity decreased. It can be achieved also by growing energy crops. However, if we pay attention only to the produced volume and the marketable crop, neglecting the structure, organic matter, moisture regime, biology and fertility, there will be no solid perspective for the soil and the grower managing it. The author summarises the pros and cons of incorporating stubble residues into the soil. She lists thirteen questions for consideration as support of decision-making.

FOCUSING ON SILAGE MAIZE

Current state of silage maize growing in Hungary, the practical importance of silage maize trials
(József Csapó)
Looking at the statistical data for 2006-2007 presented in the article, it turns out that silage maize is at a disadvantage compared to grain maize both in terms of national cropping area and the number of varieties involved in trials. In order to inform growers, the author emphasises the practical importance of silage maize trials. He supports this by drawing the attention to one of the interesting results of trials with varieties registered last year.

Lfy (leafy) hybrids from Martonvásár for quality silage production
(Dr. János Pintér, Dr. Csaba Marton L., Dr. Géza Hadi, Tamás Spitkó)
Silage maize has been one of the projects of primary importance in the maize breeding programme of the institute in Martonvásár for long decades. It is confirmed by the fact that in the past 14 years altogether 14 silage hybrids released by them have been registered in the wide range of ripening groups from series of FAO 200 to 600. The authors give an account of new, leafy (Lfy) silage hybrids bred for the first time in Europe in Hungary, recommending them to stock-breeders intensively producing for meat and mainly milk. They give a detailed description of the role of the Lfy gene, and share their experience with readers about growing and harvesting Lfy hybrids. Finally, they inform on the results obtained with the institute’s Lfy hybrids.

This is the way we grow … Producing quality maize silage in a large-scale farm
(Dr. Lajos Aponyi, Ágnes Varga)
The authors, after listing the characteristics of the high quality maize silage, deal with the management programme of the crop from the preceding to harvesting. It is followed with outlining the steps of preparing silage.

How to prepare quality silage maize up-to-date, by using Pioneer products? (x)
(Dr. János Knódel)
Pioneer recommends their silage programme for growing and preserving good quality silage maize.

Hungarian practice of growing silage maize
(Zoltán Nagy)
The author first informs on the situation of silage hybrid breeding, and then deals with the role of silage maize in two Hungarian holdings (Dunakiliti Agto Co. and Agroproduct Plc.). He also summarises the elements of the followed crop management programme and the key steps and figures of silage production.

Competitive milk production requires top quality silage hybrid … (x)
(Béla Rácz)
This is the silage hybrid offer of Monsanto Trading Ltd. for competitive milk production.

Experience of growing silage maize at Enying Agro Plc. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
József Sziládi, crop production manager of the Enying Agro Plc., talks about the silage maize growing and silage preparation.

Possibilities for improving quality of mass fodder
(Joris Karnóth)
Mass fodders play a decisive role in the feeding programme of ruminants, as such nutrients account for 60 % of their protein and energy supply. Due attention shall be paid to the preparation of fermented feeds, as their quality highly influences the success of stock-breeding facilities. This is why the author summarises the general criteria of protecting fermented feeds and the potentials of using the particular additives.

Up-to-date conservation and storage of silage maize
(Zoltán Bellus)
The specialist of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering stresses the importance of silage maize in the feeding of ruminant livestock. He presents the machines suitable for harvesting silage maize and deals with the options of storing silage (wall-to-wall silos, silo sack filling pressers, one-pass-pressing, preserving and packing).

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

A new Monilia species is threatening our orchards
(Anita Kiss)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil conservation Directorate of the Agricultural Office of county Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok draws the attention to a new Monilia species in Hungary, threatening fruit orchards: brown rot (Monilia fructicola). After presenting the host range and the geographical distribution of the pathogen, the author gives an account of the circumstances of the outbreaks in Hungary, following with the description of symptoms and development of the disease and the factors favouring the infection. Finally, she outlines the means of control.

Errors and mistakes in grapevine protection
(Dr. Elemér Nagy)
Vineyards need much attention and care to allow successful production. It is possible to mitigate the future damage caused by pests and diseases with appropriate chemical treatments and cultural operations. The author informs on the most common mistakes made by growers during plant protection operations and mentions his proposals to avoid them.

About other problems, under the colour of the take-all fungus
(Dr. Pál Békési)
Referring to the outbreak of take-all-fungus in certain wheat fields two years ago, the author draws the attention to the pathogens he has detected this year: take-all fungus, foot-rot and black mould. Furthermore, based on this season’s experience, he raises the idea of eventual viral infections.

We give you a key to success (x)
(István Tamás)
Hungarian Kwizda recommends their crop management programme for successful rape growing.

A manual for rape growing. Rape growing for beginners (x)
(István Szabó)
Dow AgroSciences draw the attention of rape growers to their crop management manual.

Evaluating the results of rape growing in 2007 according to Agrofórum and Grain Producer’s Association
(Dr. László Bódis)
We published some crop production programmes implemented by certain rape growing farms in the Annex of the previous number of Agrofórum (July 2007). The present paper gives tabulated information on the results after harvesting, in the light of the particular management programmes.

Experience of using Butisan Star in autumn 2006 (x)
(Dr. Imre Kovács)
The development engineer of BASF Hungary Ltd. outlines the experience of using Butisan Star (metazachlor+quinmerac) in autumn for the successful weed control in winter rapes.

Establishing grassland for agricultural uses in function of the production system
(Dr. László Szemán)
The author begins with the characterization of conventional intensive and sustainable extensive grass management systems. Before dealing with the timing (spring, late summer) of grassland establishment, their benefits and drawbacks, the aspects of nutrient supply and the particular cultural operations, he outlines the stages of grass developmental and the criteria of grouping grasses. In addition, he mentions the relation of the share of species and the envisaged uses of the grasslands to be established.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

A journey around melons
(Dr. Noémi Kappel, Csaba Szamosi, Attila Kosztolányi)
Melons have a significant share in vegetable growing in Hungary. Our melon production has undergone significant changes in the past few years. After Hungary’s EU accession, growers needed to reconsider and revise the concept of melon growing. There have been changes both in the crop management programme and in variety use, as growers can remain on the market with fierce competition only by applying up-to-date programme and using good varieties.

Some words about nutrient supply for grafted melons
(Csaba Szamosi)
The advantages of grafting watermelons have become straightforward in intensive watermelon growing also in Hungary in the past few years. Grafted plants are resistant to Fusarium, strong root system allows increased water and nutrient uptake, better tolerate low soil temperatures, high salt content and excessive soil moisture. If nutrient supply is appropriate, plants with high vigour develop more and larger fruits, furthermore, the length of cost-efficient harvesting period is increased. Therefore, the author is seeking the answer to the question of the appropriate nutrient supply for grafted melons.

Seen, heard, read. Focusing on sweet and sour cherry growing
(Attila Kosztolányi)
In the middle of June, the Research Institute for Fruit Growing and Ornamentals of Érd and the Fruit Growing Sub-committee of the Horticultural Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences organised a meeting and cultivar-show for sweet and sour cherry growing. The venue was one of the centres of Hungarian cherry research, the experimental station of the non-profit research company, Elvira manor at Érd. After listening to the talks of the recognised professionals and specialists, participants visited the demonstration garden, rootstock trials, gene bank and nursery at the experimental station.

Scotts recipes for success – strawberries (x)
The company writes about their proposals for applying basic solid fertilizers, liquid fertilizers and foliar fertilizers for balanced nutrient supply in strawberries.

What should we know about VINGIS? Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We asked Dr. László Martinovich, chief counsellor of the Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing (FÖMI) about the spatial registration of Hungarian vineyards (VINGIS), its structure, operation and role in EU supports.

Praising wines of the Szekszárd region. Talk with winemaker Pál Mészáros
(Zsuzsa Györök)
We talked with winemaker Pál Mészáros about wines of 2006, the current pest management situation in vineyards around Szekszárd and the importance of good nutrient supply.

Seen, heard, read. Meeting about decline of grapes
(Attila Kosztolányi)
It was in early July when the final meeting of the four-year-long Italian and Hungarian scientific cooperation in “Petri-disease and esca” took place at the wine house “Egri Korona Borház” in Demjén. Recognised Hungarian and foreign specialists and professionals participated on the event focusing on the decline and early death of vines.

A snapshot about the plant protection situation on the bastion of wines – the wine-growing region of Eger
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Tibor Kaptás, deputy director for production and advisory service of the Institute for Viticulture and Oenology at Eger of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development talked about the work they carry out in the research institute and about the pest management situation in the wine-region Eger.

Seen, heard, read. Demonstration of potato growing and varieties at Mórahalom
(Attila Kosztolányi)
On the last Thursday of June, Mórakert Producers’ Organisation held a potato growing and variety meeting at Heller homestead in the outskirts of Mórahalom. A good many of potato growers came together to hear the talks and get acquainted with the variety trials in the field show. Companies dealing with fertilizer distribution presented their offers for nutrient supply in the crop.

Grass pollens as allergens
(Dr. Miklós Juhász)
Just in the beginning we get the answer to the interesting question why pollen allergy is called hay-fever. We may also get to know that the vast majority of people in the world suffer from grass pollen allergy. The author gives a description of grasses and classifies them into four big groups. It can be concluded from the pollen analyses carried out in Szeged and Budapest that the main flowering time of the grasses in Hungary is May and June, therefore this is the most dangerous period for people affected by grass pollen. At the end of the article we receive some useful advice on how to reduce the unpleasant symptoms of allergy.

Hungarian Breeders’ itinerary congress at Tordas
(Dr. László Bódis)
The Association of Hungarian Plant Breeders held a congress in late June at Tordas. The president, dr. Csaba L. Marton opened the meeting. He emphasised that seed distributors, the Agricultural Office and plant breeders are naturally allied having the same interest. They can work for successful representation and spreading of Hungarian varieties only in cooperation. The congress continued with the talk of director dr. Katalin Ertsey Peregi, presenting the Agricultural Office operating from 1 January 2007. She gave detailed information on the work of the Crop Production and Horticultural Directorate and highlighted the changes occurred in performing authority tasks.

“High quality seed, the guarantee for the future is”
(Zoltán Molnár)
The management of the Hungarian Seed Association Inter-trade Organisation and Product Board held a meeting on 26 June 2007 followed with a press conference where they outlined the new operation form and structure of the organisation. Our correspondent lets you have an insight into the details.

Bayer Meeting. Field crop protection show organised by Bayer CropScience
(AF)
The fourth annual series of Bayer Meetings took place in the territory of Agro-Beta Ltd. (Agrár-Béta Ltd.) near to Dombóvár in county Tolna on 13 June and at the premises of “Aranykalász 1955 Mg.” Ltd. at Mezőkeresztes in county Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén on 20 June. The representatives of Bayer demonstrated interested growers their pest management programmes in five crops (rapes, maize, sunflowers, winter wheat and sugar beet).

Seen, heard, read. Pest management of the future at Bóly Plc.
(Zoltán Molnár)
Bóly Agro Plc. (Bólyi Mg-i Zrt.) and the Cereal Research non-profit company (GK) , Szeged organised a weed management show in maize based on computer-aided advisory service in the headquarters of the company’s Kislippó-Beremend Holding on 27 June. Director András Uzonyi presented the company in his opening speech to the participating professionals. Dr. Endre Széll, scientific head of department of GK gave information on the results of the project titled “Methods for optimising weed control procedure”. Professor and head of department dr. Péter Reisinger delivered a talk titled “The future of precision plant protection” about the prospects of weed survey and application techniques supported by Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and geographic information software. After the talks, in the maize field the participants could compare the efficacy of the weed control options produced with the advisory service program.

Meeting of technical journalists from Central and Eastern Europe in Sofia
(Dr. György Demes, Zoltán Molnár)
The international organisation of agricultural journalists C. A. C. (Club of Agro Communicators) set up by BASF held its 8th meeting in Sofia on 30 and 31 May. Dr. Klaus Welsch, deputy head of the agricultural branch of BASF delivered the opening speech titled “Innovative solutions for the success of our clients”. The next part of the meeting covered the foreseen trends in agriculture. Dr. Gibfried Schenk, responsible for agricultural products of BASF in Central and South-eastern Europe outlined the agricultural situation in the region after the EU-enlargement. The workshop held on the second day of the event gave an overview of current results and future prospects in the field of plant biotechnology.

International conference remembering the 45th anniversary of establishing the long-term trial at Nyírlugos
(Dr. János Lazányi)
One of the oldest long-term fertilizer trials in Hungary was established on a brown forest soil at Nyírlugos in autumn 1962 by István Láng. The Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the Agricultural Centre of Debrecen University and the Environment Management Faculty of Nagyvárad University commemorated the 45th anniversary in an international conference. The organisers draw the attention to the importance of the tasks set forth in the soil conservation directive of the EU and the possibilities of regional development and sustainable agriculture.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Prospects for developing application technique
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
Investigators and development professionals have been working for a long time in order to design and spread technical solutions for improving efficacy of spraying. Various options are available today for cost-saving and environmentally friendly plant protection. The specialist of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering gives an account of the scheme and mode of mandatory revision of machines. He presents the possibilities for improving efficacy of spraying (injection nozzles, spraying adjusted to wind, airbag spraying, electrostatic sprayers, closed or tunnel sprayers and plant sensing orchard sprayers).

Thoughts in connection with the trials carried out in the pilot farms of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
The Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering follows the changes in the performance and costs of operating machines in pilot farms. The author demonstrates the most important management and technical data of such agricultural holdings from 1981 to the present in a tabulated form. He draws the conclusion from the analysed major changes.

In a 225-year-old factory of agricultural machines. Targeting large-scale farms and contracted workers
(Dr. György Demes)
LEMKEN GmbH invited technical journalists from 22 countries of the world, among them from the Central European region, to Kettenkamp in Germany. The primary aim of the exhibition was to inform participants on the recent results of developments by LEMKEN. Our correspondent gives a detailed report on the displayed machines.

“POWER-DAYS” Open days at Austro Diesel
(Dr. György Demes)
Austro Diesel GmbH invited its producing and trading partners to the headquarters of the company at Schwechat in Austria on 23-23 June. A double jubilee gave an opportunity to the invitation: Massey Ferguson, primarily famous for tractors but in our days manufacturing also harvesters, balers and telehandlers, celebrated its 60th anniversary, and the general European importer of this company, Austro Diesel GmbH marks its 25 year-old-existence this year. Our correspondent gives a technical description of the displayed tractors with performance ranges of 55-100 PH and 90-150 PH.

Väderstad clinic. New generation cultivators with twenty years’ experience (x)
Väderstad offers growers their new series of cultivators, Cultus.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Legal page. The conditions of supports for uprooting vineyards
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
The legal advisor provides information on the extent of support for uprooting vineyards and the conditions of eligibility.

Double jubilee in cereal fields (x)
(László Farády)
Bayer CropScience celebrated the jubilee of two products for cereal protection, the herbicide Sekator (amidosulfuron+iodosulfuron+mefenpyr-diethyl) and the fungicide Falcon (spiroxamine +tebuconazole+triadimenol).

Portrait. “The most cost-effective investment is knowledge and professional skills”. Talk with Ágnes Szerényi Németh
(Dr. László Bódis)
This is a talk with the president of the Chamber of Plant Protection Professionals and Plant Doctors of county Somogy, one of the co-owners of Kaposmező Ltd., Kaposfő about grain storage, growing and the achieved results.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural history. Imre Somogyi (1902-1947)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of the series presenting great personalities of Hungarian agriculture lets you have an insight into the life and work of Imre Somogyi.

Note for growers. About food production by small enterprises
(Miklós Kurucz)
This note gives an overview of the legal provisions for growing and sales of small producers, and in connection with it, of small producers’ obligations.

In memoriam Prof. Dr. Mihály Faragó (1920-2007)
(Sándor Bognár, Béla Palojtay)
The colleagues remember Prof. Dr. Mihály Faragó by presenting his course of personal and professional life.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)