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Agroforum 2007 Marc

“Am I the keeper?”
(Dr. Bódis László)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Agricultural mechanisation in our days
(Dr. József Hajdú)
The author analyses the current situation of agricultural mechanisation based on the surveys of the Hungarian Statistical Office carried out between 2000 and 2005. Data show that the concentration of production and holdings, having taken place recently, had less effect on the rationalisation of machinery and the decrease of mechanisation costs. Machinery investments showed considerable fluctuations depending on subsidies: a dynamic increase till 2003 was followed by a significant decline from 2004. The article gives an overview of the changes in engine capacity, the number and distribution of tractors and combines over the years.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

How much wheat can viruses “consume”? Earlier experience and this season’s learning
(Dr. Tamás Árendás, Dr. Péter Bónis)
The effect of sowing time on winter wheat is among the regular topics of Hungarian research centres. The highest stability in yields can be reached by sowing the crop between 1 and 20 October according to the observations. Studying the times different from this period may help developing other elements of the crop management programme, e.g. sowing earlier than the optimum time and using less seed rate. The author compares the conclusions regarding plant protection drawn from the the sowing-time trial carried out at Martonvásár in 2002 with the current pest management situation in wheat fields, modified by the past exceptionally mild winter.

“The winter of our discontent…” or what can be still ahead until starting the weed control season in cereals?
(Dr. Gabriella Benécs Bárdi, Ákos Balogh)
The authors believe that the past long autumn and mild winter will lead to the occurrence of high number of pests in cereals, and the old and well-proved solutions for weed control will not work either. There is only one good news, and that is about the current situation on the cereal market. The global prices of wheat and maize have not been so high for years as at present, not to speak about the growing demand for cereals as alternative energy sources. At the same time, in addition to the unfavourable weather conditions, the recent challenges of crop management programmes affecting weed control also make growers think over their production. In spite of all these, it is important to know about certain principles of controlling cereal weeds when applying cultural operations, mechanical and chemical control. The article assists growers in this, completed with practical information on the herbicides having been registered since 1999 (both with wide and narrow spectrum), furthermore on the novel traits of the known products.

Nutrient supply and crop protection by applying plant conditioners with plant protection activity called “C-complex” from “PHYTO-MED” (x)
(József Varga)
You can find information on plant conditioners “C-complex” of PHYTO-MED Trading and Servicing Co.

Sekator-scissors’ success in cereal fields (x)
(László Farády)
Bayer CropScience offers its herbicide Sekator (amidosulfuron + iodosulfuron + mefenpyir-diethyl) for cereal growers.

A quintal of wheat… (x)
(Roland Szabó)
Summit-Agro Hungary Ltd. recommends ECOPART-DUPLO (piraflufen-ethyl+mecoprop-p) for weed control in winter wheat.

Improving water supply for maize by the crop management programme
(Dr. Endre Széll)
Comparing country-wide yield data of years 2003-2006, it can be concluded that water supply basically determines profitability of maize production. The adverse shortage of precipitation during winter cannot be fully compensated without irrigation. However, research results confirmed that the volume of irrigation water could be reduced by professionally applied crop management techniques, allowing maize to better use the available moisture. With this in mind, the author gives practical advice for selecting the seasonal type and the preceding of maize hybrids. Certain important issues of tillage, sowing and weed control are also addressed.

Successful sunflower growing with KWS varieties (x)
(Géza Sipos)
KWS Hungary Ltd.’s sunflower varieties for this season.

A new programme for weed control in maize … (x)
(Attila Takács)
Dow AgroSciences recommends Mustang (florasulam+2.4-D) and Trophy (acetochlor+ dichloramide) for efficient weed control in maize.

The core of production experience (x)
(Dr. Emil Bodnár, Dr. Tamás Árendás)
Bázismag (“Basic Seeds”) Ltd. offers the hybrids Hunor and Mv. 277 for maize growers.

Let’s think together –producers and Pioneer – about growing from month to month! (x)
(Dr. László Piukovics)
This part of PIONEER Studies assists growers in selecting maize and sunflower hybrids.

Successor® T: a new herbicide in maize (x)
(Dr. István Molnár, Dr. Elemér Tóth)
The new product, Successor® T (pethoxamide + terbuthylazine) is DuPont Hungary Ltd.’s recommendation for weed control in maize.

ORDAX – A new solution for weed control in maize (x)
(Dr. Imre Kovács)
ORDAX (topramezon+pendimethalin+methyl oleate+methyl palmiate) is a new herbicide mixtrure for maize growers from BASF Hungary Ltd.

Laudis – excellent in weed control (x)
(Lajos Nagy)
Bayer CropScience recommends Laudis (tembotrione) for weed control in maize.

The changes in the list of registered pesticides
The Directorate of Plant Protection, Soil Conservation and Agri-environment of the Central Agricultural Office gives an account of the changes taken place in the range of registered pesticides in 2006. Last year the competent authority registered 43 new products, issued amendments for 75 products and withdrew 33 ones. After dealing with the active substance evaluation in the European Union, the article presents the tables of the products whose active substances are included in the current positive list (in Annex I of the Council Directive 91/414/EEC) and registered in Hungary, the products with active substances withdrawn according to the EU revision programme, and the products registered in 2006 as new preparations.

Descriptive List of Vegetable Varieties. Tomatoes
(Ferenc Kovács)
The series continues with the description of tomato varieties. There are 43 determinate, 48 indeterminate and 10 semi-determinate varieties included in the National List. The varieties with determinate growth are mainly produced in the filed for processing, while the continuously growing indeterminate and semi-determinate ones are generally grown in greenhouses for fresh market. The article gives a general overview of the importance of the three groups of tomatoes, their production, cropping areas, pest management and quality requirements. In addition, the article contains the short description of indeterminate and semi-determinate varieties included in the national list in 2003, 2004, and 2005, and of the determinate varieties registered in 2003 and 2004. The conditions of the trials leading to the inclusion in the List are also mentioned.

Theory and experience of grafting melons
(Csaba Szamosi, Csaba Bársony)
Melon growers more and more frequently ask the question whether to graft melons or not. This is why the authors enumerate the pros and cons regarding grafting. In the Asian and European countries with significant cropping areas of grafted melons, without exception, it was the Fusarium disease that forced growers to introduce the new technique. For the time being, the disease is not very important in Hungary and is not expected to cause severe problems. Therefore, grafting does not seem to considerably spread in Hungarian melon growing in the near future. In addition to providing resistance to Fusarium disease, higher yields, sugar and extract contents can be reached by applying this technique. On the other hand, certain professionals are of the opinion that the biggest disadvantage of grafting is the decrease in internal fruit quality. Furthermore, readers may get to know from the article the criteria for selecting melon rootstocks.

Chemical weed control in potatoes
(Margit Nagy)
The author gives an overview of cultural techniques and stubble management in potatoes from the point of view of weed infestation and weed control. The article also deals with chemical weed control (preemergence and in-crop applications), indicating the herbicides registered for use in the crop.

Plant health control of potato growing
(Sándor Szőnyegi)
Potato is the most important crop grown in the EU from plant health aspects, covered by the most rigorous and detailed Community directives. The Hungarian phytosanitary rules implement the EU directives and strict measures in order to prevent the spread of the diseases. The author considers the tasks that persons and companies growing, storing, distributing and importing potatoes need to perform in the frame of the plant health record keeping system. He also presents the measures taken by the responsible phytosanitary authority. In the second part, he summarises the economic importance and geographical distribution of two major quarantine organisms (Ralstonia solanacearum, Potato stolbur mycoplasma), and mentions the measures taken if an infection caused by them is found.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Damage by western corn rootworm in 2006, control options for 2007
(Béla Tóth, Veronika Tóth, Dr. Kálmán Szeőke, Dr. János Jobbágy, Margit Cziklin, Dr. Géza Vörös)
The article gives an account of the damages caused by western corn rootworm in five couties (Baranya, Fejér, Hajdú-Bihar, Somogy and Tolna) of Hungary, the conclusions of its control and mentions other observations made in 2006. At the same time, the authors outline the possibilities of Diabrotica control in 2007, based on the experience obtained in the particular counties.

Fertilizer application in cereals on nitrate sensitive areas
(Béla Pirkó)
Government Decree 49/2001 on the protection of waters against nitrate contamination of agricultural origin provides for various new regulatory factors regarding fertilizer application in agricultural land. Nitrate-sensitive areas are the ones that have been delimited according to the boundaries of the localities. It is mandatory to follow the principles of Good Agricultural Practice in such areas in terms of storing and using manures. The article presents these rules designed in particular to reduce nitrate leaching to the lest extent possible.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
A brief review of certain interesting articles published in foreign journals.

Seen heard, read. Conference on the organisation and financing system of agricultural research in France
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
Hungarian agricultural research and its organisation face a dilemma. Of course, we cannot give the correct answer to the question “how to proceed?” just now. In order to make a far-reaching, well-judged decision, it is worth gathering information from a wider range about how it is done in other parts of the world. It was one of the reasons why the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, accepting the assistance of the French ministry of agriculture, organised a meeting on 21 December for the general public about conducting and organising agricultural research in France.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

BELARUS Traktor Ltd. succeeded in presenting … (x)
Belarus Traktor Ltd., as the exclusive importer of MTZ tractors in Hungary, displayed all its power machines present in the Hungarian market at AGRO-MASHEXPOalso in 2007.

Agronomic requirements and implements of seedbed preparation in spring
(Dr. István J. Jóri)
The purpose of seedbed preparation is to create optimum conditions for seed development. When selecting the operations and implements, growers need to be fully aware of the agronomic requirements. The author summarises such criteria for good seedbed preparatorys, then describes the basic tillage implements which allow making seedbeds in good quality.

Väderstad-clinic. Väderstad novelties for 2007 (x)
It covers Väderstad novelties released for soil cultivation in 2007.

Advanced weed control: Undiluted product application by MANKAR® ULV sprayers
(Dr. György Demes)
The advantages of MANKAR® ULV sprayers in applying herbicides and insecticides are outlined.

Expected costs of mechanic operations 2007-ben
(Dr. Lajos Gockler)
It is among the major responsibilities of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering (FVMMI) to gather and disseminate information on the costs of operating machines. The institute designated certain pilot farms where performance and operation costs of machinery are regularly recorded. They use such data, completed with the results of testing the machines for preparing the annual forecasts of costs. The author lets readers have an insight into them.

A new logistic warehouse for spare-part supply in Baja
(Dr. György Demes)
AXIÁL Ltd. invited its partners to Baja in January 2007 to the inauguration of a logistic warehouse for spare-parts.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Seen heard, read. Book show at the Academy of Sciences
(Dr. László Bódis, Attila Kosztolányi)
The book titled “Maize growing” by the university professor dr. János Nagy aroused great interest when it was presented at the Academy of Sciences. Our correspondents inform you on the details of the event.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural history. Miklós Bittera
(Miklós Kurucz)
Among the great persons of our agricultural past, this month we may get to know the life and work of Miklós Bittera.

Note for growers. Thoughts sprung up on an exposition
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of the series deals with mechanisation in agriculture and the possibilities for machinery support on the occasion of visiting Agro+Mashexpo.

Legal page. Structural changes in the agricultural administration
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
Several government decrees were published on 23 December 2006 in the Hungarian Official Journal about the structural changes of the Hungarian public administration. Among them, the author informs on the ones regarding the agricultural sector.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)