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Agroforum 2007 November

Witness trees
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Global prospects for major crops (2) Oilseeds
(Dr. Norbert Potori, Edina Varga)
The specialists of the Agricultural Economics Research Institute outline the global market prospects for the major oilseed crops according to mid-term forecasts, based on macroeconomic assumptions. They give a detailed description of sunflower, rape and soya bean production in the world in 2006 and provide similar data expected for 2007. They also inform on the events taken place on the Hungarian oilseed market.

FOCUSING ON SUNFLOWERS

Certain agronomic elements of hybrid-specific sunflower growing
(Dr. Péter Pepó)
Analysing statistical data, it can be concluded that not only the cropping area and yields of sunflowers have undergone a significant change in the past few decades, but also the geographic distribution of growing, and last but not least, the biological bases of production have been altered. The current hybrid portfolio offers an excellent genetic basis for Hungarian growers. Any hybrid can perform according to its encoded potential productivity and oil content only under suitable agro-ecological conditions of the production site. However, such conditions are rather variable in Hungary, that can be mitigated only by properly selecting the variety and cultural techniques adjusted to the site. The author presents the results of trials with various hybrids on seeding, nutrient supply and plant protection. He emphasises that level of cultural operations and intensity of the crop management programme need to be increased, and elements of the latter one more strictly followed in order to ensure competitiveness of sunflower growing.

Join the oil-business! (x)
(István Rikk)
Bayer CropScience recommends its fungicide Sfera (strobilurin + triazole) for sunflower growers.

Sunflower diseases in 2007
(Dr. Pál Békési)
Before dealing with the plant health conditions prevailing this year in sunflowers, the author calls the attention to the reasons of the extreme heterogeneity of sunflower stands. The outbreak of diseases was restricted by the drought in the recent season. However, the incidence of Alternaria leaf and stem spot was quite high and the susceptible hybrids were affected throughout the country. In addition, charcoal rot, a tropical pathogen (Macrophomina phaseolina) appeared over a larger area in late July. This disease is symptomless for a long time, not causing severe symptoms even later on, but every affected plant yields by 40 % less. It is the interest of growers to control the disease. The options are outlined at the end of the article.

DuPont: long-term results of sunflower growing, 1997-2007 (x)
DuPont offers growers its fungicide Alert S (triazole + carbendazim) for use in sunflowers against foliar diseases.

EU decision on flusilazole (x)
The flusilazole products of DuPont can be used without any restrictions even in 2007-2008 for the protection of cereals, sunflowers and winter rapes.

An old-new pest: European sunflower moth
(Béla Szabó, Miklós Szabó, Dr. Sándor Vágvölgyi)
The authors present an old-new pest of sunflowers, describing its biology, damage and the means of its control.

Syngenta sunflowers: simply good (x)
(János Bíró)
Syngenta Seeds Ltd. offers the listed hybrids for sunflower growers.

Ornamentalis – How to use sunflowers in another way?
(László Romhány, Dr. Sándor Vágvölgyi)
The authors discuss the management programme of sunflowers from the point of view of a new option for using the crop as an ornamental.

About sunflower yields in early October
(József Lukács)
The specialist of the Agricultural Office summarises the results of the preliminary yield estimates for sunflowers.

The practice of growing sunflowers at ‘Búzakalász-Agrár Plc.’ in Kunszentmárton. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We asked the general manager of Búzakalász-Agrár Plc. about one of the main crops in Hungary, his experiences in growing sunflowers and the effects of this year’s weather conditions.

The experience of a primary producer about sunflower growing from Nádudvar. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We talked with Sándor Petrusz, a primary producer at Nádudvar about his experiences in sunflower growing, the key elements of the crop management programme and the impact of droughty weather conditions in the recent season.

Weed-free sunflower fields always produce higher yields! (x)
This is Pioneer’s recommendation for growing sunflower hybrids.

Sunflower growing as they see it at Nak. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
The field crop manager at Nak Agro Co. talks about sunflower growing and the key points of their crop production programme.

CLEARFIELDâ technology in sunflowers (x)
(Gábor Pálfay)
The development engineer of BASF Hungary Ltd. informs sunflower growers on the primary elements of the company’s CLEARFIELD technology.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

The situation of sugar beet growing and beet sugar in Hungary
(Attila Kosztolányi)
The author summarises the characteristics of the sugar market in the European Union, and outlines the conditions of sugar beet growing in Hungary. The article also informs on the changes in the sugar beet regulations in the EU.

Study. Sugar beet low sugar disease in Hungary
(Dr. Emil Pocsai, Dr. László Potyondi)
An unknown disease broke out in the sugar beet growing areas of Hungary with symptoms similar to those described in France in connection with „low sugar disease”. The authors summarise the symptoms of this disease, its spreading in Hungary and the means of its control.

Figures about the effects of the extreme climatic conditions on maize growing in year 2007
(Dr. Sándor Keszthelyi)
The investigator of the University of Kaposvár analyses the magnitude of yield losses by the drought, and also deals with the damages caused by weather extremities and the effects of the relating diseases.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

How did western corn rootworms like the past dry season? All-round inquiry
(Béla Tóth, László Vasas, Dr. Kálmán Szeőke, András Kurucz, Dr. Géza Vörös)
This year we have become wiser with the experiences of a maize growing season very challenging for growers. But there could be “lessons learned” also for western corn rootworm. This is why, as traditionally for the last couple of years, we asked the recognised specialists and professionals, very familiar with the topic both in theory and practice, and how much this dry year was favourable for western corn rootworm.

A new hybrid with natural resistance to western corn rootworm. Press conference
Saaten Union plans to submit an application for variety trials in Hungary in 2008 of a new maize hybrid with natural resistance to western corn rootworm. The representatives of Saaten Union provided information on the results of trials with the hybrid on an international press conference held in Rastatt on 26-27 September.

Seen, heard, read. Targeting western corn rootworm
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Pannon Plant Biotechnology Society and the Association of Hungarian Plant Breeders invited their guests to a conference titled “The spreading of western corn rootworm and the means of controlling the pest” held on 25 September at the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Martonvásár.

Contribution. Remarks to the article by Ms. B. Halvaszk published in No. 10 of 2007 in Agrofórum.
(Dr. Emil Pocsai)
Contributing to an article titled “The possible causes of certain virus diseases in cereals and their management options” published in the previous number of our journal, the specialist of the Agricultural Office of County Fejér, Directorate of Plant Protection and Soil Conservation deals with verbalization and the reasons of severe virus infection affecting early-sown cereal fields, as well as with the possibilities of controlling virus diseases.

Supporting company research and innovation
(Zoltán Hajdu)
The Decree 22/2007 of the Minister in charge of the Prime Minister’s Office was published in order to encourage research, development and innovations in enterprises. In connection with the Decree, the author informs on the amount and conditions of supports to be obtained, and also outlines the subsidies to be announced in the forthcoming months in the frame of the Operative Programme of Economic Development (GOP).

The position of Hungarian agriculture in the European Union. The contradictions of our agri-environment policy
(Dr. Péter Csathó, Dr. László Radimszky, Dr. Tamás Árendás)
Hungary has been a member of the European Union for 3 years. Soon it will be the 16th year that the “Nitrate Directive “was published for the protection of surface waters and groundwater in the EU member countries. This is why the authors thought that it was necessary to size up, how successful the important agri-environmental directive was in reaching its objectives in the environmental effects of plant nutrient supply. They made the evaluation, considering the changes in the past 15 years and comparability of nitrogen and phosphorous balances, and P-content in soils in the EU-15 and the countries accessed to the EU in 2004. The specialists assess the factors mostly influencing the intensity of organic manure and synthetic NP-fertilizers applied per area unit. They also present the NP balances prepared in the Western-European countries and the new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular collection of reviews prepared from articles published in foreign technical journals.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Under the magnifying glass …(41.) KERTITOX FAVORIT 3000/24 field sprayer
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
This part of the series puts trailed KERTITOX FAVORIT 3000/24 field sprayer with airbag and adjustable gauge wheel under the magnifying glass. The article gives the major characteristics, structural parts and operation of the sprayer, tabulating the major technical data. The specialist of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering describes the objectives, conditions and methods of laboratory and field tests with KERTITOX FAVORIT. He publishes the most important characteristics for performance, working quality, energetics and operation based on the testing results. Finally, he presents the proposals for users prepared from their conclusions.

Aerial application in the crop management programme
(Dr. József Hajdú, Dr. György Dimitrievits)
Evaluating aerial plant protection, the specialists of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering discuss the main uses, advantages and drawbacks compared to field application of pesticides.

CLAAS and HORSCH machines in a field show
(Pictures and text: Dr. György Demes)
AXIÁL Ltd. invited its partners to a field show of CLAAS and HORSCH machines held on 4 October 2007 at the premises of Aranybulla Mg. Co. in Székesfehérvár. After a session of detailed presentations, visitors could get acquainted in a field demonstration with the new developments of CLAAS in combines, balers and other implements. At the same time the event provided a good opportunity for demonstrating the work and the machines themselves of the tillage and drill machines from HORSCH to be distributed by AXÁL Ltd. from the next year.

Seen, heard, read. Agricultural implements with GPS-based computer control using EUPOS system
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Satellite Geodetic Observatory of the Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing and IKR Production Development and Commercial Corporation jointly organised an event at Páty in county Pest in late August to demonstrate the application of EUPOS system in agriculture.

Väderstad-clinic. Cost-efficient solution for small and medium enterprises (x)
Carrier Drill offers a new solution for small and medium-size enterprises in soil preparation and seeding.

Seen, heard, read. PELLENC 4460 grape harvester on a demonstration tour
(Dr. György Demes)
KITE Plc. offered practitioners the opportunity at various places during vintage to see PELLENC 4460 self-propelled grapevine harvester in operation.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Scientific memorial session in Nyíregyháza
(Dr. László Bódis)
The University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, Research Centre organised a scientific memorial session in Nyíregyháza in early September to celebrate the 80th anniversary of founding its legal predecessor.

Portrait. “Farm management is more than production itself …” Talk with József Szczaurski
(Dr. László Bódis)
This is a talk with József Szczaurski, the head of Gazdakör Ltd. and the Section of Field Crops in the Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture, about farm management, work at the Chamber and the future prospects for agriculture in Hungary.

A man of co-operation
(Miklós Kurucz)
Agrofórum is not a journal for ornamental growers. However, now it presents the thoughts of a floriculturist, the conclusions of which can be useful also for field crop growers.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. Róbert Ballenegger
(Miklós Kurucz)
This time you may get to know the life and work of Róbert Ballenegger among the remarkable personalities of Hungarian agriculture.

Legal page. About yield estimates
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
The legal advisor deals with the decree on yield estimates entered into force on 1 October. He informs on the tasks to be performed in the frame of yield estimates, as well as on the deadlines and depth (preliminary, final, preliminary and final) of carrying out yield estimates in the particular crops.

Note for growers. Intervention storage
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of ‘Note for growers’ informs readers about the term of intervention storage. In addition to describing last year’s and this season’s new trends, the article provides an outlook to the future prospects, too..

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)