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Agroforum 2007 September

Dawn in September
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Global market prospects for the major plant products (1) The most important cereals
(Dr. Norbert Potori, Edina Varga)
The specialists of the Agricultural Economics Research Institute outline the global market prospects for cereals according to mid-term forecasts based on various macro-economic assumptions. They present the details of wheat and maize production in the world and Hungary in 2006 and expectations for 2007. Considering the possible global market prices of maize and wheat, a slight decrease is forecasted even for 2016 compared to the prices in 2006, which will not be favourable for the EU from various aspects. On the one hand, the most important basic material of bio-ethanol production will be expensive, and on the other one the competitiveness of animal husbandry will further get worse. The authors draw the attention to the changes in the EU agricultural regime already taken place and also the ones foreseen in the near future.

FOCUSING ON WINTER WHEAT

Wheat quality and cultural techniques
(Dr. Tamás Árendás, Dr. László Láng, Dr. Péter Bónis, Dr. Zoltán Berzsenyi
The investigators of the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences give a clear idea of the relationship between wheat quality and cultural operations. The most important factor of achieving the targeted crop quality and quantity and increasing the security of production is optimum fertilizer application. Up-to-date fertilization advisory systems allow environmentally-friendly and cost-saving wheat growing based on the results of research and several decades’ practice in nutrient supply. Quality production requires better soil conditions, this is why techniques leading to the drying and compaction of soils should be avoided, because, as a consequence of such techniques, the useful biological activity of soils will decrease, the process for stubble residues, fertilizers and nutrients to become available will be slowed down and nutrient and water uptake of plants will be worsening.

What does Hungarian wheat show? Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We asked Dr. Attila Réther, director of Concordia Warehouse Ltd. – Cereal Control about the activity of the company, the quality of Hungarian wheat harvested this season and the major quality parameters.

Let’s see what’s beyond the figures! Wheat growing – 2007
(Dr. László Bódis, Tamás Petőházi)
The authors summarise this year’s wheat production. Besides national data, they give an account of results achieved in the particular regions.

Experience of growing early, sparsely sown wheat considering the past dry summer
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We already outlined the management programme of growing wheat sown at an early time with reduced number of seeds and its possibilities in the May number of Agrofórum. Considering this year’s droughty weather, we believed, having the obtained yields, it could be worthy to present our readers a report about it. Read the article to know how this crop management programme gave proof after the past mild winter and spring and the extremely dry summer in the farms following this trial programme in 2006.

Fertilizer application for wheat, 2007/08 (x)
LINZER AGRO TRADE Hungary Ltd. recommends its fertilizers for application in autumn and spring.

This year’s conclusions of producing seeds of winter cereals
(Zoltán Benke)
The author from the Central Agricultural Office provides information over several years’ data on the inspected areas and the volume of certified seeds in the frame of growing winter cereal seeds. After presenting this season’s trends in seed propagation, he takes the available varieties into consideration. Finally, data on the certification of winter wheat seeds are outlined.

Winter wheat varieties released from Karcag could cope also with the extreme weather conditions prevailing this year (x)
(Árpád Puskás, Zoltán Győri)
How did winter wheat varieties bread at Karcag perform in the growing season of 2006/2007? You may get to know the answer from the article written by the investigators of the Research Institute, Karcag of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences.

Virus diseases influencing winter wheat production
(Dr. Géza Kuroli)
Plant pathogenic viruses significantly influence the success of our cereal growing. There are almost fifty pathogenic viruses and phytoplasmas affecting cereal crops in Hungary, among which the most important ones are tabulated in the article. In addition to informing on the symptoms and damages caused by the major viruses, the author also deals with virus vectors and the options for preventing and reducing losses.

Virus diseases caused significant yield losses in cereals (x)
(Tamás Fehér)
This is Hungarian Kwizda Ltd.’s insecticide offer to prevent virus diseases in cereals.

Seed treatments against fungal diseases of cereals
(Dr. Pál Békési)
The article is about the fungal diseases and their pathogens that can be suppressed by seed treatments. The author gives a detailed description of the main groups of cereal diseases (smuts, foot-rots, leaf-spots, rusts, powdery mildew and head blight), the morphology and biology of the most important pathogens, not forgetting about the seed dressing possibilities.

This is to be known about seed treatment (x)
(Chemtura)
Chemtura recommends the seed dressing product Vitavax 2000 (carboxin + thiram) and its advantages to growers.

Chemical weed control in autumn for winter cereals
(Zsuzsanna Hoffmann Pathy)
All the necessary inputs shall be given to winter cereals already this autumn in order to obtain fair yields next year. Weed management in autumn cannot be left out either. By now chemical weed control in winter cereals has been included in the crop management programme at many places, while it has not been even tried in other farms. This is why the author draws the attention to the advantages of autumn weed control and to the adverse effects of weeds, among them, to take away soil moisture from the crop. She gives an account of the major cereal weeds based on the data of the National Weed Surveys. She finishes with outlining the criteria of selecting herbicides for application in cereals in autumn.

Logran 20 WG – providing safety and freedom (x)
(György Kurtz)
Syngenta Ltd. recommends Logran 20 WG (triasulfuron) for safe weed control in cereals in autumn.

Expected prices for EURO-wheat at the commodity exchange till the new harvest
(György Vágó)
The specialist of HAMILTON International Stockbrokerage forecasts EURO-wheat prices in the commodity exchange.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Trials for detecting damage of western corn rootworm by using remote sensing
(Diána Fényes, Gizella Nádor, Sándor Oravecz, László Vasas)
FÖMI Remote Sensing Centre makes efforts to identify areas affected by damages of western corn  rootworm larvae by using satellite images. The specialists of the Institute of Land Surveying and Remote Sensing outline the results of trials undertaken to detect larval damages by the pest with a remote sensing method, and the conclusions that could be drawn from them so far.

Yield estimates for EU-27 member states
(Sándor Oravecz)
The article informs on the yields estimated for EU member states by the European Commission in late July.

Again about the risks of residual effect of herbicides
(Zsuzsanna Hoffmann Pathy)
The dry weather in this season has made the degradation of herbicides used in the preceding crops of rapes extremely difficult. This is why the specialist of the Agricultural Office of County Somogy, Directorate of Plant Protection and Soil Conservation summarises information on cereal herbicides with phytotoxic effects on rapes.

Rapes shape up from Caramba SL (x)
(Gábor Pálfay)
The development engineer of BASF Hungary Ltd. presents the benefits of using Caramba SL (metaconazole) in rapes.

Hungavit – the up-to-date answer (x)
(Pais István)
Biolife 2000 Plc. recommends growers its intensive rape management programme ‘HUNGAVIT’.

Scotts recipes for success – PLANTING AN ORCHARD (x)
This time the advantages of using Agroblen fertilizers are outlined for planting grapes and fruit crops.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

About growing hot peppers
(Attila Kosztolányi)
The author gives a brief overview of the changes taken place last year in the hot pepper sector. He presents the traditional growing districts and ecological requirements of hot peppers. He deals with the details of selecting varieties to grow and with the newest varieties and hybrids. The article informs on the elements of the crop management programme, with special attention to the new, intensive techniques and their advantages. Finally, hot pepper quality, and the issues of harvesting, storing and ripening are discussed.

Aeroallergenic summer weeds
(Dr. Miklós Juhász)
Among the three main pollen seasons, i.e. in spring (of trees), summer (of grasses) and late summer (of weeds) the latter one is the most important in Hungary. This is the time when most of the annual volume of pollens are produced and the number of people suffering from hay-fever is the highest. Now the author deals with weeds known as domestic allergens and most frequently captured by the pollen traps.

Family wine estate in Szekszárd wine region
(János Szekretár)
The author presents readers his own vineyard situated in Szekszárd Historical Wine-region. In addition to informing on the main operations in- and between-the-rows, the article lets us have an insight into the characteristics of this year’ s plant protection and the family’s devotion to viticulture.

Our forgotten crop: hemp
(Dr. Ildikó Iványi)
Hemp, not grown in Western Europe for fifty years, went through a revival in the 1990s. At the same time, its production in Hungary has almost stopped. The author presents the changes in the Hungarian cropping area and yields of fibre hemp through the data of over fifty years. Furthermore, she gives a detailed description of the prospects of using hemp in Europe and Hungary.

Economic assessment of hemp production
(Dr. Lajos Iványi)
The paper deals with the economic assessment of hemp, analysing the costs and benefits of growing the crop. He calculates costs and yield-levels according to intended uses. The article touches also the issue of energy hemp a kind of crop that is expected to spread in the near future.

Standing on more legs in the region Homokhátság
(Miklós Kurucz)
Homokhátság (“Sand-region”) is a characteristic region between the rivers Danube and Tisza, situated in three counties. This is the most typical part in the world of scattered homesteads in the Great Hungarian Plain, where there are still many for whom the production of the family’s needs is still the main priority and who sell only the rest part of the harvested crop. The article present István Szél, a family farmer in this region, who has been bound to the homestead and the sand in his very early childhood.

Results of collecting packages contaminated with pesticides in 2006 (x)
(Péter Lantos)
The managing director of Cseber Co. outlines the results for 2006 of collecting used packages of pesticides, co-ordinated by them.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

CLAAS novelties (1) Harvesters
(Dr. György Demes)
As it happened some years ago, CLAAS managers invited the representatives of the European technical journals to Hungary also now, in order to give an account of a part of the recent developments in a press conference followed by a show. The real sensations was to display a completely new CLAAS combine, i.e. CLAAS TUCANO. In the first part of the article, we inform our readers about this new combine and certain novelties in connection with the known CLAAS harvesters (LEXION, MONTANA).

Challenger programme in further increase
(Dr. István J. Jóri)
The distributor HUNTRACO Plc. has widened the choice of Challenger tractors in the Hungarian market.

Versatile programmes for ploughing competitions in Hungary and throughout the world
(Dr. György Demes)
The Hungarian Ploughing Contest Association presented the programme of this year’s ploughing contest on the press conference held at Budapest University of Technology and Economics in late July, and informed participants about the venue and date of world ploughing contest. After the press conference, our correspondent asked dr. István Jóri, the president of the Hungarian Ploughing Contest Association about the events taken place so far in connection with the competitions.

VOGEL-NOOT increases its capacity by an acquisition of a drill factory (x)
Novelties from Vogel&Noot Agri-Machine Ltd.

Country-wide tour with Massey Ferguson tractors and Väderstad implements
(Dr. György Demes)
Väderstad Ltd. and Austro Diesel GmbH, distributor of Massey Ferguson tractors invited their partners again for a country-tour between 23 July and 3 August. MF tractors and Väderstad implements could be seen with an easy reach in the field shows at ten different places of Hungary. After the country-wide tour, we asked the managers of two companies, Tibor Kalmár of Väderstad Ltd. and Vilmos Lőwi, Hungarian sales manager of Austro Diesel GmbH about the aim and experience of the demonstration series.

Väderstad-clinic. “The secret of success is the high standard of mechanisation,” (x)
The experience of soil cultivation and sowing with Väderstad implements are outlined here.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

God rest your soul, János! Remembering János Hetyei
(Dr. László Bódis)
This is an irregular commemoration by a friend of János Hetyei.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural history. Géza Horváth (1847–1937)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month the series allows us to get to know the life and work of Géza Horváth among the great agricultural personalities of Hungary.

Legal page. Support for establishing and operating growers’ organisations
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
The legal advisor gives an account of the decree on the detailed conditions of obtaining support from the European Agricultural and Rural Development Fund to create and operate growers’ groups. He presents the aim of such support and the stakeholders who could benefit from the scheme, as well as the documents needed to be attached to the application for the support.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)