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Agroforum 2008 February

Late winter
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Grape and wine sector 2007-2008
(Csaba Horváth)
The author gives an account of grape yields for 2007, and then gives an account of the main results of the wine market reform. He outlines the changes at EU and national levels regarding must improvement, protection of geographic origin, vineyard uprooting, legislation on vine-growing communities and market competition. He draws the attention of Hungarian winemakers to the tasks resulting from these challenges.

FOCUSING ON THE WHEAT OF THE FUTURE

Trends in wheat breeding – wheat of the future in transformation
(Dr. Zoltán Bedő, Dr. László Láng)
The authors give an overview of the changes having taken place in wheat breeding since the 1950s. They emphasise that not only growers but wheat breeders, too have had to face new challenges since the 1980s, such as the increased frequency of extreme climatic effects, priority of quality requirements and food safety. The recent breeding objectives focus on requirements for crop quality, quantity and cropping stability. The article analyses the key questions of the future, whether wheat will be able to compete with the current and the forthcoming energy crops. The authors discuss the genetic resources of wheat growing, classifying them into four groups such as land races and old varieties, wild and cultivated related species, exotic sources and adaptive types. Finally, they emphasise the relation between bred consumption and healthy food.

What will be wheat of the future like? What is in the pipeline of Hungarian breeders?
(Dr. János Matuz et al.)
The article lets readers have an insight into the process of wheat breeding and the quality requirements wheat must meet. Accordingly, we may read about the testing of flour quality, studies on drought tolerance and disease resistance. Finally the breeding programme for durum wheat is briefly presented.

Milling industry’s requirements for wheat and Pannon-quality wheat
(Zsófia Pótsa)
Wheat quality used to be determined for a long time primarily by purity, hectolitre weight, gluten content, gluten spreading and bakery value. However, in 1998 new indicators were introduced, such as raw protein content, falling number and sedimentation value. The author draws the attention to that nowadays further important parameters and new testing methods have come into the limelight in Western Europe and other continents. It is essential that our country also accommodate to the changed market requirements within a short time, otherwise Hungarian wheat will be ranked into the “cheap sector” of the market. Cereal traders would like to manage the business being aware, in addition to Zeleny-index and raw protein content, also of alveographic W and P/L values and extensographic energy values. The remaining part of the paper deals with the situation of cereal trade and cereal processing.

Let’s plan spring weed control in cereals! (x)
(György Kurtz)
Syngenta Ltd. recommends two main options for weed control in spring cereals.

Split application of top dressing in spring and applying Linzer NPK-fertilizers (x)
(Gábor Müller)
Linzer Agro Trade Hungary Ltd. presents its offer for NPK-fertilizers for use in top dressing in spring.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Tillage lessons learned last year for achieving better results this season
(Dr. Márta Birkás)
The paper summarises the conclusions of the previous year that are well worth taking into consideration, in order to reduce losses in the fields during the forthcoming season. Being familiar with soils is essential in mitigating climate-related damages. The second step is to choose the best one among the options for loss reduction, while the third one is the actual mitigation of damages and the prevention of a further loss. The author mentions stick probe and digging probe as simple tools for examining soil condition easy-to-use also by growers. Later on she draws the attention to the importance of soil condition suitable for water intake and the relationship of soil condition and drought damage, mentioning the phenomena responsible for worsening the situation by drought in 2007. Finally, she draws the attention to conserving organic matter content of soils, indicating the value of stubble residues in the organic matter supply of soils.

National trial with spring barley varieties in spring, 2007
(Dr. András Tomcsányi)
The author gives an account of trials carried out with spring barley varieties in 2007. In the introduction, he presents the locations, varieties and weather conditions and continues with the trial results in terms of yields, protein content, gradedness, thousand-seed-weight and hectolitre weight, earliness, steadfastness and diseases.

Descriptive list of vegetable cultivars. Green peas
(Ferenc Kovács)
Green peas is a major vegetable crop in Hungary even today, the second one in terms of growing area among field vegetables. Variety is a critical element of producing good quality product, being a key factor in successful growing. This is why this part of our series of the Descriptive list of vegetable cultivars presents the green peas varieties included in the national list between 2003 and 2006.

Weeds in peas, their control and the available herbicides
(Gábor Wágner, dr. Erzsébet Nádasy Ihárosi)
The article lets us know which are the weeds in peas and how to carry out weed control appropriately, referring to cultural operations and chemical treatments. Furthermore, we can get information about the range of registered active substances, pre-planting herbicides to be incorporated, pre-emergent products, herbicides applied as in-crop treatment against broadleaf weeds and grasses, as well as the products registered for defoliation of peas.

Is it worthy growing peas? Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Our correspondent talked with László Jeney, head of a family farm in the small region around the town Aszód, about the experience of pea growing in 2007, production costs and the prospects for this season. They also dealt with the elements of the crop production programme, such as weed management, the control of pests and diseases, harvesting and spraying technique.

Weed control in poppies
(Márta Goda Biczó)
The author gives an overview of the weeds occurring in poppies, and also deals with the herbicides registered for use in the crop.

Hungarian opium poppy growing, in particular poppies for processing. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Opium poppy is one of our most important plant species accumulating alkaloids. Its head is used as a basic material for pharmaceutical industry, while its seeds are a popular food. The latter use has a long tradition in Hungary.

Aeroallergens of winter time
(Dr. Miklós Juhász)
The author discusses the details of moulds provoking allergy and present in flats, outbuildings and stables all year round, thus also in winter. He also gives some advice to keep out mould from the house.

A dream has come true – “electric cow” is in operation at Pálhalma
(Miklós Kurucz)
It was already the 13th time, AGROFÓRUM raised a current topic in connection with farming in the series of “Seeking the way”. With this in mind, many of our readers visited the biogas generator in Pálhalma after its inauguration.

Kwizda’s recommendation for spring rapes (x)
(Tamás Fehér)
Hungarian Kwizda Ltd. offers a spring rape package of insecticides and complex boron and sulphuric foliar fertilizers for its rape-growing partners.

KWS sunflower hybrids proved to us again! (x)
(Géza Sipos)
KWS sunflower hybrids are presented through their performance in 2007.

Again about Proponit – after a hard year (x)
(Ferenc Somos)
The experience of year 2007 in pre-emergence weed control with Proponit (propisochlor).

Pest management in sunflowers (x)
Dow AgroSciences recommends the new Goal duplo for chemical weed control in sunflowers.

DuPont 2008: targeting crop safety with new crop management programmes and better prices (x)
This is DuPont’s pest control programme for this season.

The basis of a reliable pest management programme … (x)
(Rozália Pecze, Endre Máté, György Kurtz)
What is in the pipeline of Syngenta in Hungary?

A new concept in fertilizer application (x)
(Gergely Sebestyén)
Microgranulated starter fertilizers as proposed by PESZTI-PLANT Ltd.

Nutrient supply in spring with AZOTER® soil-bacterium fertilizer (x)
The advantages of AZOTER bacterium fertilizer during the nutrient supply period in spring are presented by Pannon-Trade Ltd.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Pest management in orchards in 2007
(Miklós Tóth)
The first part of the paper, presenting last year’s plant protection overview by the specialist of the Central Agricultural Office, deals with apples. You may get to know what was year 2007 like for the major pests and diseases, and the prospects for the forthcoming season are also revealed.

Pheromone mating disruption: an innovative, environmentally friendly technique in plant protection
(Gyula László)
In the countries leading and coming up in fruit growing and viticulture, mating disruption – also called confusion technique – is gaining more and more importance in the control of moths in orchards and vineyards. The main reason of the rapid spreading is the increasing demand by the general public for environmentally friendly farming methods and fruits free form pesticide residues as a guarantee. From the growers’ side, the wider-scale introduction of mating disruption is motivated by rapid withdrawal of old insecticides harmful to the environment and human health.

Meteorological devices – sophisticated achievements of several centuries’ technologies (1)
(Tamás Tóth)
In the first part of the series readers can get acquainted with the traditional meteorological instruments and observation devices.

Up-to-date methods in nutrient supply for field peppers
(Dr. István Terbe)
The tasks for the forthcoming years in pepper growing are to increase crop quality and quantity, as well as yield safety. One of their conditions is to streamline nutrient supply. This is why the author explains the bases of up-to-date calculation of nutrient demand. He also deals with the application of nutrient solutions as a modern method of nutrient supply.

Evaluating our tomato growing for processing
(Dr. Lajos Helyes)
The author outlines the management programme of growing processing tomatoes. He continues with summarising the current situation of tomato production in Hungary, indicating the tasks to be undertaken in order to improve our competitiveness.

SCOTTS recipes for success – Brassicas (x)
Scotts offers its options for applying basic fertilizers, nutrient solutions and foliar fertilizers in brassicas to achieve optimal nutrient supply.

Nufarm Hungária Ltd. – introduction (x)
( György Salamon)
Nufarm Hungária Ltd.’s novelties for cereal and maize growers in 2008.

Ornaments of our house and country (2) Imperishable leathery leaves. Garden jewels in blue – Grape Hyacinths. Wintersweet – ice-bound flowers
(Dr. Zoltán Hámori)
Bergenia has a long history as a perennial ornamental. Its rosy flowers delight the eyes already from the end of winter. Grape hyacinths with their plenty of fleshy, blue, bowing flowers are like real jewels. Wintersweet, one of the most peculiar frost resistant shrubs, generally begins to flower in January and blooms till early March

Comments. A system is not a line! Cannot be bent, only deformed!
(Dr. Bálint Nagy)

SynTech Research introduces itself (x)
What is to be known about Syntech Research Hungary Ltd. is found here.

LOOKOUT

Foire de Châlons – agriculture and what is behind it …
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
The article offers an outlook to the history of the agricultural fair at Châlons-en-Champagne, furthermore an exhibition and fair (SINAL) showing non-food use of biomass. We may get to know France’s current energy policy in terms of the renewable energy sources and the role of agriculture within it.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Let’s learn about tractors (3) Tractor diesel engines
(Dr. Vilmos Varga)
The engines of universal tractors have undergone a significant change in the past few years. The article briefly summarises the major elements of operating diesel engines and the achievements of technical development.

Recommendations about application technique for growers (3)
(Jenő Huszár, Miklós Pánczél)
The professionals of Farmcenter Ltd. give an overview of flat spray nozzles and nozzles with mixed (hybrid) drop formation in the frame of application technique advice.

Increasing yields – in winter (x)
(Norbert Páska)
Güttler Ltd. recommends Güttler Standard rolls for enhancing tillering of winter cereals in spring.

Väderstad-clinic. Seed Hawk, Rapid Favorit, Carrier Drill (x)
Novelties offered by Väderstad.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. János Mathiász (1838-1921)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month readers may get to know the life and work of János Mathiász in the frame of our series presenting the remarkable people in Hungary’s agricultural history.

Seen, heard, read. Christmas party with partners at CHEMTURA
(Dr. György Demes)
CHEMTURA EUROPE LTD. invited its existing and prospective partners to the traditional Christmas meeting of the Hungarian Branch.

Portrait. “Good spirit and optimism stimulate us to increase performance”. Talk with Tamás Kovács
(Dr. László Bódis)
This talk with the managing director of Agrospeciál Ltd. took place in connection with the inauguration of the biogas works at Pálhalma.

In memoriam János Turi (1937-2007)
(Dr. Sándor Balikó)
We commemorate the late deputy general director of Bóly Agricultural Co., János Turi.

Note for growers. Structure and support of advisory service
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of the series informs on the structure of advisory service and its government support.

In memoriam Antal Horváth (1926-2007)
(Dr. András Binyei, Dr. Sándor Manninger)

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)