The plant breeders, gardeners and plant protectors monthly magazine

Current issue

Recent special issue

Agroforum 2008 May

Maypole
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

The justification of protected hot pepper growing in Hungary
(György Somogyi et al.)
In 1998 the investigators in Szeged of the Hot Pepper Research Non-profit Company launched the programme of breeding and trying in commercial growing hot pepper hybrids in order to offer an alternative for all growers who are not satisfied with the yields, cropping stability and crop quality of outdoor stands, and possess a greenhouse infrastructure where they cannot grow other vegetable crops in a cost-efficient way but, with a relatively modest input, the facilities can be involved in production again. The author lets readers know the details of this greenhouse management programme based on hybrids.

FOCUSING ON MULCHING

Crop management and technical elements of mulching
(Dr. István J. Jóri)
The author from Budapest University of Engineering and Economics deals with the no-plough mulching technique as a basic tillage among the soil-preparation techniques known and used in Hungary. He presents the advantages of mulching and the primary elements necessary for its application.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Round-table discussion about the current state and prospects of our agriculture
(Dr. László Bódis)
Acknowledged experts exchanged their ideas about the situation of Hungarian agriculture and the prospects for development and a breakthrough.

Advantages and drawbacks of growing GM maize hybrids
(Dr. László Heszky)
Almost 100 % of the GM (genetically modified) cropping area is covered by soybean, cotton, rape and maize varieties resistant to non-selective herbicides and certain insects. In Hungary, due to the moratorium in force, currently it is prohibited to grow transgenic crops. The author reveals the advantages and risks involved in producing GM maize hybrids. He also outlines the key points of genetic modifications in question in order to better understand the benefits and risks.

With a grower’s eye. New generation GM crops in the United States
(József Pájtli)
The professional managing a farm in Tamási (county Tolna) had the opportunity various times to study the pest management problems in maize and soybeans and the development of the applied management programmes in the corn and soybean belt of the USA, Illinois State. In this article he presents the prospects of the new-generation GM technology, highly increasing the crop safety in the USA, as he experienced it in practice at the Farm Progress Show.

Certain thoughts in connection with maize pests
(Dr. Géza Ripka)
On the approach of May, in the past few years the question has been regularly brought up by Hungarian maize growers: what will this year bring forth regarding western corn rootworm and what can we do against it? The author gives an account of the control options, the changes occurred among the registered pesticides and the last year’s experiences.

Enying could not escape from western corn rootworm in 2007 either. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We were talking with Ferenc Mikó, the owner of Mikó & Mikó Ltd. managing 1760 hectares of field crops around Enying and running a contracted machinery service, about their last year’s experience in controlling western corn rootworm, the applied programmes and this season’s prospects.

‘Beetle’ experience at Somogyjád. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Our correspondent asked Zoltán Szerényi, the managing director of Somogyjád Mg. Plc. about his experience in fighting western corn rootworm.

Casper – a new option for weed control in maize (x)
(Béla Radvány, Szilvia Csantavéri Tóth, László Laczkó)
This is information on a new post-emergence maize herbicide from Syngenta.

The experience of controlling western corn rootworm in Zomba. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We asked István Misóczki and his son, Balázs, farming under excellent maize growing conditions in Zomba, the region of Mezőföld about their opinion about western corn rootworm control, last year’s remarks and this season’s prospects.

A new ship with an old crew (x)
The name “Kemira GrowHow” will soon be lost in the mists of time”, as the company name changes to Yara Hungary.

Fungicide programme in PANNON wheat
(Zoltán Papp)
KITE Plc. launched its Pannon wheat programme for quality wheat growing in 2002. The first very important task was to select a variety that would be able to constantly produce high crop quality even under extreme weather conditions. Crop management programmes shall be closely observed in order to obtain the required wheat quality. The professionals of KITE Plc. set up these requirements based on their decade-long series of trials with varieties, nutrient supply, plant protection and drill. Among them, the author gives an account of protecting quality wheat against fungi.

About winter wheat protection
(Péter Hertelendy)
Spring makes the fields green again wherever we go throughout the country. Intensive growth of rapes and winter cereals has started. At the same time, this green colour tending and covering everything is rather deceptive, various plant diseases are ready to infect winter cereals, thus winter wheat, reducing the yields. Favouring growers, high cereal prices fairly compensate for plant protection costs, practically a fraction of the price of a ton of wheat can cover the costs of a treatment. The article outlines the list of pathogens presenting possible risk also this season and the options for their control.

Prosaro – the flagship of cereal fungicides (x)
(László Farády)
This is Bayer CropScience’s offer for cereal fungicides to control head blight, as well as leaf diseases and other ones affecting ears.

Certain winter wheat varieties improving crop quality
(Ágnes Pongrácz Barancsi, László Honti, Dr. Zoltán Győri, Dr. Péter Sipos, Zoltán Mezei)
With Hungary’s accession to the EU we have become a part of a large, well-organised market where we can be competitive not by increasing areas but by constantly producing high quality wheat and optimum yields. As we sell a significant part of our wheat production on the EU market, the primary target is to produce a commodity base of the same quantity and suitable for the purpose. The authors present certain winter wheat varieties with durum grains possessing excellent quality, offering useful additional information to mills requiring homogeneous, improving quality wheat.

Fusarium, rust together – no chance against the doubles of Artea! (x)
(György Kurtz)
Syngenta Ltd. recommends Artea (propiconazole + cyproconazole) to control head blight and rusts in winter wheat.

Harmony among plant, nature and treatments (x)
(Dr. Anikó Antal)
Hungarian Kwizda informs on its programme of canopy protection and foliar fertilizer application in the frame of “Supplying nutrients and protecting the crop”.

The second fertilizer application in spring (x)
(Gábor Müller)
Linzer Agro Trade Hungary Ltd. presents its offer for spring application of fertilizers.

Information about agricultural advisory service
(Imre Wayda)
The system of agricultural advisory service was reorganised in Hungary in 2007. The author lets us know the principles, set-up and operation of the established new system. It is also explained how to make use of the advisory service and how to apply for a due financial support.

Scotts recipes for success– Sunflowers (x)
This is Scotts’s offer for foliar fertilizer application in sunflowers.

Safety of harvesting rapes (x)
(István Péter)
Agrosol 2000 Ltd. recommends rape growers to use Nu-Film™ 17 to obtain higher yields.

Single Area Payment Scheme. Report
(Miklós Kurucz)
With the EU accession we have undertaken to adjust our agricultural subsidy system to the model applied by the member states with longer history in the Community. This is why Single Area Payment Scheme (SAPS) has become known since 2004, operated with a supplementary national subsidy system. The former member states – EU-15 – have changed to another system after the CAP reform of 2003, and Hungary will join that scheme as it is foreseen now, from 2009. We can read about the new subsidy scheme under preparation, worked out regarding the main principles as it came through from the talk with the head of Strategy Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, dr. Ferenc Nyújtó and his deputy Zoltán Szentirmay.

Elastiq – A new, intelligent surfactant for rape growers … (x)
(Dr. László Kondár)
This is an anti-drop product from Chemtura for rape growers.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

“Dangerous plant diseases (6) Fireblight
(Dr. József Németh, Gábor Mező)
This piece of the series gives an account of bacterial fireblight of pome fruits, describing its importance, host range, symptoms, as well as the means of forecasting and controlling the disease.

Traps catching both North-American and European cherry fruit flies
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt, Dr. Miklós Tóth)
Cherry fruit flies impose a significant risk to the profitability of sweet and sour-cherry production. The situation has become even more severe since 2006 when North-American cherry fruit fly established also in Hungary. In order to reveal whether this is the case of an establishment that may cause severe damages in the future, the authors started trials with the available kinds of traps. Its purpose is to identify the ones that are more suitable for reliably detecting the appearance of the pest and its seasonal flight.

Nutrient supply in orchards (x)
(Dr. Eszter Zsom)
K+S Kali GmbH recommends certain products for an optimum nutrient supply of orchards.

Vegetable market processes and trends and in 2007
(Dr. F. Erdész, Anett Isépy, Viktória Varga)
The investigators of the Agricultural Economics Research Institute present the market trends of the major vegetable crops for 2007, the price trends in particular, and in addition to it, they reveal the main relationships between supply and demand based on the preliminary information on quantities for 2007.

Lettuces deserve more attention (2)
(Dr. István Terbe)
The author draws the attention to one of the most successful vegetable crops of the past twenty years, i.e. lamb’s lettuce. This plant, underestimated by many and considered a weed of no value, is the third most popular leaf vegetable after lettuce and endive in Western and Southern Europe. However, in Hungary it is grown only in some household and hobby gardens, and it is practically not present on the market as a commercial commodity. The article discusses the dietary importance of lamb’s lettuce, crop management programme, outdoor and greenhouse growing, as well as the criteria of selecting the varieties for growing.

The options for replacing soil disinfestation with methyl bromide in greenhouse in Hungary
(Dr. Csaba Budai, Béla Varjas)
Glasshouse growing is an outstanding sector of horticulture in Hungary. Soil disinfestation is a decisive technique in the approximately 4500-hectare area. A new situation was created with the phasing out of methyl-bromide in 2005. Appropriate alternative techniques needed to be found for the 80-100 hectares of glasshouses where intensive, successful growing took place due to disinfestation with methyl bromide. Readers may get to know the results of trials established to develop new, alternative techniques replacing methyl bromide treatment in the frame of a project supported by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme).

Nutrient supply and irrigation in carrots
(Dr. Hanna Némethy Uzoni)
The role of carrots in our diet has increased in the past decade. At the same time, the requirements for the quality have also increased influenced by the joint effect of various factors: climate, soil conditions, nutrient supply, irrigation and tillage. The author gives an account of the demand of carrots on nutrient supply and irrigation according to the length of the season.

A crop for wide use: bear’s garlic
(Zoltán Pap)
Bear’s garlic is a re-discovered vegetable and herb used in an increasing range, possessing chemical compounds similar to those of garlic. Among them, the most important ones are the various derivatives of sulphur compounds (responsible for the characteristic smell), alliin, alliinase, alliicin, ajoen. These compounds can be very successfully used for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases due to their effects of decreasing cholesterol, increasing HDL-cholesterol, reducing the risk of embolism, observed for several centuries and later confirmed by experiments. Furthermore, the author from Budapest Corvinus University presents the environmental requirements of bear’s garlic, propagation method and possible uses.

About the nutrient supply for sweet corn
(Ferenc Orosz)
It is well-known that field vegetables are nutrient-demanding crops. Crop quality and quantity of sweetcorn is influenced by, in addition to various factors, such as variety, irrigation, optimal crop density and tillage, also by nutrient supply. We affect not only the nutrient cycle in a particular season with a continuous fertilizer application, but also change the nutrient content of the soil that should be taken into consideration when determining fertilizer rates year by year. This is why the author describes the method of calculating nutrient quantity and the way of applying and incorporating nutrients in the soil. Finally, he mentions some of the most frequent mistakes made during fertilizer application.

Ornaments of our house and homeland (4) A jewel-box in the garden in May – perennial beds
(Dr. Zoltán Hámori)
By all means, in May the most beautiful elements of gardens are the perennial beds structured by basic, significant and complementary perennials.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular review of certain interesting articles published in foreign technical journals.

Soils also have memory
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
A large-scale soil analytical programme was launched in France some years ago in order to create a detailed soil database, in a way allowing to prepare various land use maps and also to monitor the changes in time. What does the programme mean exactly? The details are in the article of the Hungarian scientific and technical attaché in Paris..

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Novelties among machines displayed at VII. AXIÁL Professional Days
(Dr. György Demes)
AXIÁL Professional Days, organised already for the seventh time in Lajosmizse on 3-5 April 2008 attracted more people compared even to the previous year, attended by over 20 thousand people. Similarly to other times, the whole range of AXIÁL machines was displayed there from agriculture, constructing industry and storage technology.

New methods for engine diagnostics and a brake room for better quality
(Dr. György Demes)
A dream from the previous year of AXIÁL Co. has come true by now at the central premises of the company in Baja. On 18 March the service and spare part branch of AXIÁL inaugurated a new break room allowing the use of up-to-date engine diagnostic methods and the connecting workshop suitable for dismantling and reassembling engines. The event was attended by the representatives of the agricultural, industrial, repairing and service supplying companies, correspondents of technical journals, and the middle – and high-level managers of training institutions

Güttler – tillage management programme from the user’s side (x)
(Norbert Páska)
Güttler Ltd.’s offer to the attention of those wishing to purchase implements for working in the field

Väderstad-clinic. “Väderstad implements substantially rationalised tillage operations in winter wheat, rapes and maize” (x)
The advantages of using Väderstad implements based on the experience of an individual entrepreneur Albert Agro at Bácsbokod.

Let’s learn about tractors (6)
(Dr. Vilmos Varga)
Tractors are controlled and turned by the steering gear. Navigation and together with it direction control are influenced, among them by suspension and of smooth riding of wheels, tyre design, the quality of ground and road, exerting pulling power and lateral or braking force. Readers may get familiar with the various ways of steering and steering gears.

TECHAGRO 2008. At the biggest International Fair of Agricultural Technology in Central-Eastern Europe
(Dr. György Demes, Dr. István J. Jóri)
TECHAGRO has become the biggest International Fair of Agricultural Technology in Central-Eastern Europe. Almost all the recent machines of field crop and horticultural growing were displayed there, among them tractors, tillage machines, drills and harvesters, fertilizer spreaders and sprayers, the whole range of machines used in rough fodder, to mention only the most important ones.

Application technique advice for growers (5)
(Jenő Kft, Miklós Pánczél)
In the previous parts of their series, the specialists of Farmcenter Ltd. drew the attention to the importance of application technique in the efficacy of the treatment, then gave an overview of the TEEJET tips with various purpose and design. Now they deal with the adjustment of sprayers before the season

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Portrait. Talking with Gergely Szöllősi “A fair way is in front of me, I only need to follow the footsteps.”
(Dr. László Bódis)
This is a talk with the manager of PROF-AGRO Ltd. about the work of the producers’ group.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. Gábor Ubrizsi(1919-1973)
(Miklós Kurucz)
In the frame of the series presenting the remarkable persons of our agricultural past, this month readers may get acquainted with the life and work of Gábor Ubrizsi.

Legal page. Soil conservation
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
In connection with the Act on the land, the legal advisor writes about the provisions for soil conservation and the obligations of land users.

Note for growers For a blooming Hungary
(Miklós Kurucz)
“For a blooming Hungary” is a national competition for embellishing and protecting our environment, contributing to the creation and maintenance of a lively and flowery Hungary. The article describes the brief history of the movement and the call for this season.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy