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Agroforum 2008 September

Who will protect the agricultural land?
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Prospects in the global market of the major plant products (1)
(Dr. Norbert Potori, Edina Varga)
The authors, from the staff of the Agricultural Economics Research Institute, analyse the expected production in Hungary, the use of the domestic crop in the sector and the changes affecting the market. They conclude that the relatively high, though extremely unsteady price of cereals stimulates production and importers require a uniform supply of special quality wheat varieties in large quantities. The article draws the attention to the increasing demand by the bio-fuel industry, furthermore to that the capacities need to be estimated in due time in order to avoid problems arising from the excessive amount of by-products.

FOCUSING ON WINTER WHEAT

Internet help (x)
This contains the kinds of information that can be gathered from the website Farmit.hu.

Nutrient supply of winter wheat
(Dr. Pepó Péter)
The author deals with nutrient supply, a key production factor influencing crop safety, crop quality and quantity by considering the increasing demand for cereals, as well as the current status of wheat growing in Hungary and the EU. The article provides an overview of global and Hungarian fertilizer consumption. It discusses the importance of nutrients in the crop management programmes of different intensity and covers the major problems in nutrient supply. Based on the long-term trials, the author concludes that it is the grower that plays the most important part in obtaining cost-effective yields due to the good response of wheat to nutrient management. However, in order to make a step further, the nutrient demand of the crop, specific to varieties needs to be taken into consideration by substantially widening the choice of varieties and utilizing the cropping potentials of the particular varieties in addition to site-specific nutrient supply.

Wheat varieties and crop management programme from Szeged
(Dr. Béla Beke, Dr. János Matuz, Dr. István Mihály Petróczi)
Regarding the significant difference between milling and fodder wheat, we can conclude that the role of quality has been increased. Furthermore, being aware of the adaptability, the stability of crop quality and quantity is gaining more and more importance. The authors, who carry out comparative trials with 24 varieties, give an account of the varieties, bred in Szeged, suitable to reach improving and steady milling quality. They also outline the relationships of fertilizer application and wheat quality based on their long-term experiments and summarise the results of farm trials.

Novelties from Martonvásár: breeders’ offer in varieties and crop management programme
(Dr. László Láng, Dr. Zoltán Bedő)
The authors, having played an important part in the research and development programme of Pannon wheat, present the offer of Martonvásár researchers for 2008. The article summarises the quality parameters of Pannon premium varieties, Pannon standard varieties, of those of high gluten content and the highly productive ones.

It is easier in autumn (x)
(Sándor Viniczai)
The article summarises the conclusions of an all-round inquiry about weed control in winter cereals, in particular the use of the triasulfuron herbicide Logran.

Professional asks professional. Who knows what about wheat?
(Dr. László Bódis, Zoltán Molnár)
What do professionals think about the situation of the sector and the market? Which are the elements of the crop management programme they consider the most important? How has precision technology fulfilled the hopes for practical use?

A possibility for reducing weed control constraints of winter cereals (x)
(György Kurtz)
The use and advantages of triasulfuron herbicide Logran 20 WG are outlined.

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Who cares about the future of our soils?
(Dr. Márta Birkás)
Whose interest is to misinterpret green energy? Who benefits from making our soils defenceless? What is the reason why a straw power plant is environmental friendly and a wind power plant is not? For whom is it important that soils have fair physical and biological conditions, higher fertility and less sensitivity to climate? Why are up-to-date soil management and the organic matter supply of the soil important? What are the damages caused by carbon-loosing tillage? The author calls our attention to that it is necessary to reconsider the profit-driven strategy of renewable energy resources in order to protect our agricultural lands.

Why the basic fertilizer application in autumn is important? (x)
(Rita Vári)
The most important nutrients are applied by basic fertilizing. Emphasizing its importance, Linzer Agro Trade Hungary Ltd. calls the attention to Linzer Ware fertilizers.

The definite other use of agricultural land
(Sándor Hajdu)
The author from the office of land registry in county Hajdú-Bihar outlines the administrative rules of the withdrawing agricultural land from growing and using them for other purposes.

Thoughts about the nutrient management in the times to come
(Dr. Zoltán Szabó)
The increase of the current prices of fertilizers and the likely decrease of those expected for cereals delimits the optimum use of fertilizers. In order to partially reduce inputs, the author, in compliance with the agrienvironmental target programs, draws the attention to the importance of green manuring and the need for nutrient supply justified by soil analyses.

Seen heard, read. Dekalb innovations in practice
(Attila Kosztolányi)
The author reports on the presentations about Dekalb breeding achievements delivered by Monsanto Hungária Ltd. and accompanied by a variety show hosted by Hódagro Plc., Hódmezővásárhely.

In connection with this year’s rape growing
(István Kovács)
Rape is a profitable crop to grow but this may be threatened by the current increase of fertilizer prices. Is it possible to compensate for the reduced fertilizer rates with any other elements of the crop management programme? That is the question the author puts to us.

HUNGAVIT – an up-to-date answer for rape growing (x)
(István Pais)
The article is an offer by Biolife 2000 Plc. for Hungavit plant conditioners and a new product Mikrokondi S+Zn foliar fertilizer, supported by their trial results.

Seen heard, read. As you sow, so you reap – a day for professionals about sunflowers
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Our correspondent reports on a meeting jointly organised by the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company, the Society of Agricultural Sciences of County Csongrád and the Agricultural Office of County Csongrád in Kiszombor. The invited speakers gave an overview of the market situation for oilseed crops, the results of sunflower breeding and phytopathology studies, as well as seed supply and the quality control of varieties.

Let’s change over to Pétisó® (calcium ammonium nitrate)! (x)
The advantages of using CAN (Calcium Ammonium Nitrate) fertilizer are outlined in the article.

Seen heard, read. The prospects of traditional maize breeding in Europe and the world
(Attila Torma)
The author reports on the Diabrotica programme of Saaten Union Hungária Ltd., presenting the developmental work and breeding results of the company.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Dangerous plant diseases (8) Grapevine downy mildew
(Dr. Mária Varga, Dr. József Mikulás)
The authors give an overview of the disease, outlining its symptoms, the environmental factors favouring its onset, the causing agent, forecasting and the options for genetic, agronomic and chemical control. The authors wish to assist growers to professionally select products in order to provide efficient control by presenting, in a tabulated form, the groups of fungicides registered for grapevine downy mildew.

Tulipomania: rise, fall and revival (4)
(Dr. József Horváth)
This part of the series reveals the molecular bases of virus-induced colour breaking of flowers. Possessing the relatively new technology of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), perhaps in the near future it will be feasible to produce so-called VIGS tulips, i.e. plants of aesthetic value similar to Rembrandt-tulips with colour breaking trait but being virus-free and resistant to decline.

Seed dressing and seeds treated with wine (x)
Why is it justified to select Vitavax 2000 consisting of a contact (thiramTMTD) and a systemic carboxin component produced by Chemtura Co. among the pesticides registered for this kind of use?

FOR VEGETABLE GROWERS

Leek growing in The Netherlands and Hungary
(Dr. András Kádár)
The annual per capita consumption of leek in countries traditionally growing and exporting the crop ranges between 3 and 6 kg. Compared to this, the similar data for Hungary is rather modest but shows an increasing trend. The article gives an overview of leek production in such a country and in Hungary.

A major vegetable field crop: peas

(Dr. Györgyi Csontos)

Presenting the types and the management programme of green peas, the plant with the second largest cropping area in Hungary, the author discusses the details of tillage, sowing, nutrient supply, pest management and harvesting.

Root-fixing media in soilless growing
(Dr. Katalin Slezák, Zoltán Pap, Ferenc Orosz)
In the previous number of our journal the authors gave an account of soil-less means of growing. Now they inform on the types of the growing media to be used. They describe the chemical, physical and crop production characteristics of root-fixing media of organic, mineral and plastic origin, considering the advantages and drawbacks of using them, last but not least their suitability for recycling.

The possible role of selecting varieties in the more efficient control of thrips in greenhouse peppers
(András Molnár)
The author studied the resistance of pepper varieties to western flower thrips under experimental conditions. It is rather difficult to control the pest with conventional pesticides due to the hidden characteristic of the thrips. This is why varietal resistance can also be important in controlling the pest. Initial research results confirm that varieties possess different susceptibility to the pest.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
Various kinds of residues have been detected in wines due to intensive pesticide use in vineyards; are more stringent requirements needed?
There have been quite a few words about the degree of nitrate contamination in connection with vegetable consumption. EFSA studies concluded that the hazard of nitrate intake with vegetable consumption depends on the customs of use, but it involves a negligible health risk. We may get to know the nitrate contents of certain vegetable crops that need to be taken into consideration also during growing, storage and processing.

A region where vine-growers and winemakers are optimistic: Champagne, and “the champagne”
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
The International Biennial of Sparkling Wine and Champagne-Making Techniques, VITeff was organised last October in France, region Champagne–Ardennes. The forum provided an excellent opportunity to innovation; furthermore the utilization of winemaking by-products was a separate topic to discuss in the frame of a special conference with the participation of French and foreign experts and professionals.
The exposition not only allowed to speak about “champagne” but also about all kinds of similar beverages made of grapes, stating that demand has been growing for sparkling wines not only in France but in abroad, too. Production may be increased by the complete revision of Champagne district allowing them to enlarge Champagne as a district with protected designation of origin (PDO) by 10,000 ha. The author outlines the several-century-long history of “champagne” and the campaign-plan primarily aimed at obtaining the American export market.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Let’s learn about tractors (10) The electric appliances of universal tractors
(Dr. Vilmos Varga)
In the present part of the series we may get to know the operation of electric appliances of tractors important from the point of view of traffic safety and the so-called CAN-bus system. The demonstrating figures help in understanding the operation of battery, generator, starting engine, high beam and sound signalling appliances described in the article.

A new series of tractors, renewed mowers and swathers by CLAAS (1)
(Dr. György Demes)
We present the main attraction of CLAAS among this season’s novelties, a multifunctional series of AXOS tractors with an output range of 70-100 LE, possessing optimal technical characteristics especially for agricultural holdings of mixed profile.

Güttler – tillage management (3) (x)
(Norbert Páska)
This is information about seedbed preparation and a yield-increasing technology.

How to select ?… … (3) swather
(Zsolt Kelemen)
This part of the series outlines the technical characteristics of swathers and the criteria for selecting the machines.

Väderstad-clinic. Minimum tillage, maximum success (x)
The article presents minimum tillage applied in the farm of the Plótár family at Dióskál, considerably reducing time and costs of growing.

Väderstad- clinic. Advanced technology even in small fields (x)
Dr. Ferenc Tomicska, managing his farm in the surroundings of Keszthely presents the advantages of using Carrier disc, Rollex cylinder, NZ-Aggressive cultivator and the newly purchased Cultus cultivator.

Again on a country-tour … with MASSEY FERGUSON tractors and VÄDERSTAD implements
(Dr. György Demes)
It was already the seventh time that Vänderstad Ltd. organized its country-wide tour jointly with Austro Diesel GmbH distributing Massey Fergusson tractors. The report, illustrated with pictures, informs on the distributed types, and highlights the talk delivered by dr. Márta Birkás, professor and head of department, about good tillage practice held next to the machine.

A new company servicing GPS (x)
(Bence Nagy)
Agromatic Automation Ltd. was established for the sales and promotion of agricultural GPS products.

A Strom DISCLAND disc harrow (x)
(József Bruszi)
This is a short description of Strom Discland distributed by KITE Plc.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Portrait. Talking with Miklós Légrádi
(Dr. László Bódis)
The author of this series introduces us a private farmer from Lengyeltóti, letting us know his rape growing programme and way of thinking about the land.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past: János Horn (1881-1958)
(Miklós Kurucz)
We recall the memory of a great Hungarian horticulturist and get to know his life and work.

Note for growers. About the wine market reform
(Miklós Kurucz)
The EU reform has been carried out successfully in the grape and wine sector. The approved agreement is favourable for Hungary. The sector will obtain an amount of subsidy higher than expected from the next year. The author informs on the most important measures, and outlines the regulation regarding Tokaj-Hegyalja Wine-district.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)