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Agroforum 2012 November

Candles blowing out
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

Why don’t we have drought-resistant plant varieties? (1) Plant-water relations
(Dr. László Heszky)
After each droughty year, several articles are published written by various seed companies and breeders, emphasizing the drought resistance of their varieties. However, in most of the cases, they are not more than business arguments, in the hope of a higher volume of seed sales for the next season. As a matter of fact, there is no field crop that would have a drought resistant variety included in the national list with that claim. Growers duly raise the question why. And actually, why? The columnist of Agrofórum for Biotechnology wishes to answer this question with this article.

FOCUSING ON AGROFÓRUM’S CALL FOR PROPOSALS

Announcement of results
Agrofórum several times published a call for proposals to young farmers wishing to share their experience in growing. Several works have been submitted to this call titled “Efficient farming under extreme conditions” in various topics. Three proposals were considered reflecting the level of our journal. The one placed first is published in this number while the other papers will appear later on.

Analysing the answers that can be given in terms of agronomy to pest situation provoked by climate change
(Dr. Sándor Keszthelyi)
The higher number of pest occurrences due to climate change and the reduced range of available pesticides increase the importance of alternative control methods. Therefore the agronomic operations, carried out appropriately and at the same time, being the cheapest and most feasible tools in the hand of growers, may take a wider place in the crop management programme. In addition to the soil water conservation techniques so much emphasized in our days, the methods used to suppress pest prevalence are also needed to be dealt with. The author outlines them, taking examples from the fields.

Portrait. “I wish to teach that I myself do and experience in practice.” Talk with Dr. Sándor Keszthelyi
(Dr. László Bódis)
We believe it is worth presenting the person who has won the call launched in July in our series of Portraits. Dr. Sándor Keszthelyi, assistant professor of Kaposvár University has received a voting of 5:2 from the members of the jury. Now we publish his paper.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Europe‘s biggest seed factory
(B. L.)
We report on the inauguration of a seed company taken place in Mezőtúr on 16 October 2012, by which action Syngenta put an end to a ten-year-programme.

Critical aspects of labelling, distributing and using plant protection products and yield enhancing substances (1)
(Ágoston Tóth)
In the first part of his paper, the author deals with the risk factors of using agrochemicals, the mistakes and non-observance of the legal requirements, in particular illegal distribution and falsification.

Study on the frost resistance of winter wheat varieties under natural conditions
(Bernát Poós)
The Hungarian Seed Association (GOSZ-VT) organised a programme for the 2011-2012 trial season with 30 winter wheat varieties at the Variety Testing Station of the Directorate of Plant Production and Horticulture of the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBIH) and in other fields outside NÉBIH. The article publishes the results of the post-registration trials to compare varieties for their frost resistance in order to provide information on varieties included in the national list, both the ones bred in Hungary and others released abroad.

SAATEN-UNION winter cereals – higher crop volume, more success also in 2012 (x)
(Zoltán Blum)
Winter wheat varieties and hybrids released by SAATEN-UNION are described under this heading.

Looking back to cereal diseases in 2012
(Péter Hertelendy)
To what extent various pathogens have affected cereals this season? In order to answer this question, the author makes an overview of year 2012 from the point of view of the major diseases of winter wheat and winter barley, summarising the related risks.

Falcon Pro agricultura Hungariae (x)
(László Farády)
Get to know the universal fungicide Falco Pro from Bayer.

2012… is it the year of soybean?
(Dr. István Oláh)
The article reports on a meeting and an exhibition.

High yields and crop safety in sunflower growing (x)
(Dr. Sándor Nagy)
This is an offer by Euralis for sunflower growers.

KSH-AGRYA research starts to investigate the situation of young farmers
(B. L.)
The Hungarian Statistical Office and The Hungarian Association of Young Farmers concluded a cooperation agreement this summer, among them about working out and implementing joint programmes. The cooperating parties consider it important to carry out the joint research in the generation shift affecting agriculture. They gave an account of this programme on a press conference held in the Ministry of Rural Development on 27 September 2012.

Hungarian grower, possessing the capacity of managing NPK balance
(Dr. Péter Csathó, Dr. László Radimszky, Dr. Tamás Árendás)
What is happening to the nutrient stock of our fields? Do growers trace the fate of the NPK material supplied to soils by organic manures and fertilizers or in another way year by year? Both the current fertilizer prices and long-term considerations require that demanding growers be aware of the NPK turnover of their fields on the long run and obtain information on their nutrient content by regular soil analyses.

False fertilizer – it costs a lot for all (x)
(Yara Hungária Kft.)
Yara professionals believe that it is appropriate to draw the attention between two seasons to the falsification of fertilizers both for traders, distributors and growers.

The power of the spirit… Greeting the maize breeder Dr. István Kovács
(Dr. István Oláh)
It was an intimate ceremony on 5 September 2012 when Dr. István Kovács, maize breeder acknowledged by state award was celebrated on the occasion of his 90th birthday by his one-time colleagues, followers, students and the members of the current maize-breeding generation.

Quality, reliability and innovation – the past, present and future of Fertilia (x)
(Péter Simon)
These are news from Fertilia Kft. having become known for being the market leading manufacturer of single fertilizers.

Book preview in Gödöllő. Cultivation of soil and mind
(mz)
The Agricultural and Environmental Faculty of Szent István University organised a preview of the book titled “Soil schools”, written by Dr. Márta Birkás and her colleagues, in the rector’s meeting room on 8 October. We give an account of the event in a report illustrated by photos.

Farming course (8) Basic tillage operations, soil cultivation techniques
(József Kovács)
We cannot produce crops profitably on uncultivated, neglected soils because plants cannot grow there appropriately. Soil conditions are favourable for our plants if they can access to amounts of air and water appropriate for their needs. It is ensured only in duly loose and friable soil structure. We cultivate lands with various implements in order to reach such conditions. Our goal is to obtain them by the least intervention possible and in the cheapest way. Therefore this article gives an account of the particular tillage operations grouped according to the set objectives (stubble stripping, stubble management, ploughing and seedbed preparation).

The present is based on our traditions and the future feeds on it. Report
(Dr. László Bódis)
The Hungarian Seed Association invited the selected experts and professionals to the meeting of persons widely acknowledged in the seed sector, organised in the frame of the assembly of the Seed Association. The aim of the initiation was provide a forum for professionals, representing examples for the new generation but already not taking part in the operative work, to meet each other and to hear about the latest news in the seed sector.

High yields, drought tolerance and crop safety in maize production (x)
(Dr. Sándor Nagy)
Have a look at the offer of the company Euralis about competitive maize varieties suitable for growing at any production sites.

Reporting from the battle taken place in the fields at Szákszend
(Attila Kosztolányi)
The article reports on the demonstration harvest in a field plot held for professionals interested in maize growing. The event was organised by the Hungarian Maize Club at Szákszend in early October in the frame of the Maize Yield Competition.

Small garden all year around. Jobs in November
(Franciska Tóth Bogdányi)
In November the amount of rainfall is increasing due to the effect of the cyclones arriving from the Mediterranean Sea. This is the second most rainy and humid month of the year. Spades, shovels and pitchforks are working in the garden: this is the time for digging, turning of compost and planting trees.

PRODUCE MARKET

Summary of the produce market
(Ildikó Edit Tikász, Edina Varga)
You may have an overview of the processes taken place at the global produce markets of the major field crop (wheat, maize, sunflowers and rapes) prices and crop volumes are summed up.

BIOTECHNOLOGY

“Let’s learn gene technology (28) The food safety risks of consuming transgenic (GM) varieties
(Dr. László Heszky)
The most important reasons for denying GM crops by the society are presented from the point of view of the food safety risks. Gene technology gives a revolutionarily new approach for mankind, threatening people from two aspects. One of them can be attributed to the foreseen consequences of the “unauthorised” intervention into the evolution process. The other aversion comes from the unrealistic possibility and practice of introducing into GM crops and activating genes taken from taxonomically remote organisms (virus, bacterium, animal, human being). Such perceptions are strengthened by spontaneous fears from the unknown that can be attributed to the unfortunately poor scientific knowledge of the majority of the society. This does not mean that no food safety risks exist. This part of the series wishes to indicate them.

VEGETABLE GROWING

The effect of the production system on the quality and usability of beetroot
(Dr. Mária Takács Hájos, Péter Kiss)
The authors publish the results of the crop management trials carried out with beetroot in the Horticultural Demonstration Garden of Debrecen University, Agricultural and Economic Centre. They studied the effect of sowing dates on the quality parameters and the usability of the crop.

Syngenta: the complex solution. Report
(Dr. Attila Szalay)
The slogan taken into the title indicates the synergies of the multinational company as the two major divisions, seeds and plant protection products have been merged under the concept of “force is in unity”. The decision seems to be successful as it has been heard from professionals. This solution allows expertise to earlier turning to bearing. This was demonstrated and confirmed by the meeting on cabbages organised at Ócsa in November.

FRUIT GROWING

What is the reason why super high density meadow orchards did not work?
(Dr. László Szalay)
The aim of introducing the planting system of meadow orchard was to create an orchard where pruning and harvesting can be carried out mechanically, without touching the crop manually. Moreover, there is no need to wait for years for turning to bearing the crop after planting, because almost immediately we can take high volumes of uniform, excellent quality fruits to the market. The system was first worked out for apples, later it was adapted to peaches. By reading the article you may get to know the reasons why the system finally has not been as successful as it was hoped.

VINE GROWING AND WINEMAKING

The kinds of our grapevine varieties in the first decade of the third millennium (1) Rich choice of varieties
(Dr. András Lőrincz, Dr. István Fazekas, Dr. Gábor Zanathy)
The series launched with this article wishes to give an overview of the share of grapevine varieties planted in vineyards in the first decade of the third millennium in Hungary, based on the overall vineyard cadastre prepared in 2001 and surface area data supplied by grapevine communities to the National Council of Vineyard Communities. The authors selected two years 2005 and 2011 for analysis: the first for being the first complete year of our accession to the EU, while the second one is for being the last complete year for evaluation.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

How to select?… (19) Driven tillage machine (Swinging and rotary harrows, tillage and drill combinations)
(Dr. István Jóri)
In the previous parts of the series we gave – hopefully useful advice and ideas for selecting, buying and using ploughs, disk-based tillage implements, mid-subsoilers seedbed preparators and cultivators for between-the-row operation, levelling and compacting implements, as well as rotary tillers. Now, in the final article the author does the same for swinging and rotary harrows, tillage and drill combinations.

Let’s learn about harvesters …(31) Cucumbers and lettuces
(Dr. László Bense, István Nagy)
This part of the series presents the selective and the overall, stubble-like harvesting of cucumbers and lettuces. Mechanical background and operation principles are described.

Inaugurating the two most recent and up-to-date factories of AGCO/Fendt
(Dr. György Demes)
The paper reports about the inauguration of two assembling factories of AGCO/Fendt located in Germany. One of them produces the cabs for all Fendt Vario tractors from the smallest vineyard tractor to the 390 HP heavy duty machines. The other factory prepares the cabs for any kind of Fendt tractors along the most updated assembling lines of our times.

LOOKOUT

INNOV’AGRI – 2012 field show in agronomy or what has the future in store for us? Report
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
French growers draw much attention to the field demonstrations organised regularly at various regions. Such events focus on a particular crop and present the recent innovations of practical importance, machines, crop management programmes and crop varieties. INNOV’AGRI is among such series of events. The author reports from the exhibition held near to Orlèans on 4-6 September featuring the technology for maize and sorghum, sharing with readers what was seen and heard there.

Browsing in foreign technical journals
(Compiled and translated by Eszter Polgár Balogh)
Certain articles published in foreign technical journals are reviewed here.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. Gyula Szapáry (1832-1905)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month readers may get acquainted with the life and work of Gyula Szapáry in the frame of our series presenting the great persons contributing to agricultural development in Hungary

Note for farmers. About farmers’ organisations
(Miklós Kurucz)
This note is dealing with the law on farmers’ organisations and certain issues of regulating the agricultural market, passed by the Parliament in summer. The background of the law, its preparation, scope and certain operational principles are also outlined.

Written anno …
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)