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Agroforum 2014 May

My meadows
(Dr. László Bódis)

TOPIC OF THE MONTH

The impact of the CAP reform on Hungarian subsidies in agriculture
(Compiled and recorded by Dr. László Bódis)
The Secretary of State responsible for agricultural economy, György Czerván provided information about the future system of agricultural subsidies for the first time, on 18 January 2014 for members of the press. Subsequently, high officials of the ministry presented the details of the reform and expressed the position of the Hungarian Government on several fora. This article contains the edited version of the presentations delivering a comprehensive message.

FOCUSING ON ALTERNATIVE PLANTS

The role of alternative plants in Hungarian agriculture
(János Jóvér et al.)
The challenges posed by the complex demands and climatic conditions draw the attention towards the alternative crops that could be the solution to several crop production problems. In this context, the authors from the Research Institute of Karcag of Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, present various legumes and alternative cereal crops from the user side.

A small plant with high potentials: the options of using white lupin
(Gabriella Tóth)
The author from the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza of Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences (AGTC) provides an overview of the role of lupins in feeding, as well as the use of sweet lupin for human consumption. Furthermore, he provides a brief description of the past and present of lupin breeding as well.

A Paulownia species hybrid in catch crop growing
(Dr. József Steier)
The author gives an account of the results obtained so far during a three-year research work and pilot project. In the frame of the programme, catch crops have been established on areas unsuitable for conventional agricultural production – in particular sand and/or other poor land, by planting Paulownia species hybrid further developed in a Hungarian professional basis, i.e. Smaragdfa® (meaning Emerald Tree).

TOPICALLY, UP-TO-DATE

Timing of in-crop treatment against Fusarium head blight
(Dr. Pál Békési)
Efficient fungicides are available to control Fusarium head blight. However, there is a key issue: the appropriate timing of treatment, the importance of which is highlighted by the author.

Incidence of internal infection with Fusarium of Hungarian winter wheat lots in 2013
(Ágnes Halász, Tamás Hochbaum)
The authors from the National Food Chain Safety Office (NÉBiH) Directorate of Plant Protection, Soil Conservation and Agri-environment, give an account of the incidence of internal Fusarium infection of Hungarian wheat lots recorded last year in the survey the National Food Chain Safety office. At the same time, they summarise the bases of integrated management of Fusarium head blight.

Stripe (yellow) rust: early occurrence and susceptible varieties – Epidemics?
(Bernát Poós)
We were surprised to experience that stripe rust appeared again in our country after a long time at an early date reaching a significant incidence in susceptible varieties! The author from the NÉBiH, Directorate of Plant Production and Horticulture wishes to call the attention to the current situation and the jobs to be done for the control.

The risk of the new occurrence of stripe rust and the bases of its integrated control
(Ágnes Halász, Tamás Hochbaum)
In countries under cool and wet climate, the most significant rust disease of wheat is stripe (yellow) rust. The pathogen established in 2013 could have the potential to survive and start a further epidemy in 2014. This is why we believe it is worth drawing the attention to the disease and summarising the biology and morphology of the fungus, and symptoms of the disease, as well as the bases of its integrated control.

Weevil risks in row crops
(Dr. Sándor Keszthelyi)
Due to the mass appearance, in early March in cereals at the stage of tillering, of weevils, affecting row crops (maize, sunflowers, sugar beet), the author draws the attention to the damage caused by these pests. Furthermore, he outlines the options for long- and short-term forecasting, as well as for the control of weevils.

Scouting the fields. Overview of spring jobs
(Dr. László Bódis)
Being in springtime, we returned to the experts called together for Crop Round Table (‘TERKA’), to ask them about the timely jobs to do. When reading the article, please take into consideration that the time of answering the questions was the beginning of April, about a month before the issuance of the current number. It involves that a part of the talk can be already put in past tense. However, the recommendations for the future are worth considering by other growers.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION

Soil – soil conservation, plant – plant protection, integrated crop production: Overview (1)
(Dr. József Horváth)
Similarly to agriculture, industry and trade are in continuous development. The operation of huge systems takes up a large amount of raw materials and non-renewable energy. This involves enormous environment pollution and emissions of harmful substances with all of their consequences. According to the “everything is connected” principle, international literature fills libraries with these topics. József Horváth, professor of virology provides a selection from the storehouse of such knowledge, in particular from the point of view of soil conservation, plant and its protection, as well as integrated crop production.

Dangerous plant diseases II (12/7) Alternaria diseases of tomatoes and peppers
(Dr. János Kovács, Dr. Géza Fischl)
This part of the series on “Dangerous plant diseases” takes Alternaria diseases of tomatoes and peppers under the magnifying glass. The article gives an account of their geographical distribution, importance, the pathogens and the options for their control.

Soybean growing in Europe and Hungary; issues of profitability
(Ferenc Szépe)
The April edition of our journal was focusing on the national soybean forum held on 25 February. In connection with this event, the subsequent numbers of Agrofórum will in particular report on the lectures and presentations that could support everyday decision-making. Firstly, we publish the content of the lecture delivered by the head of co-organizing Department of Agriculture in the Ministry of Rural Development. He outlined the situation of Hungarian agriculture, the conditions of successful soybean growing, as well as the strategic options and things to be done.

Hommage á József Antal
(Dr. István Oláh)
The 95-year-old professor emeritus, József Antal was celebrated on his birthday at Szent István University.

XXth Plant Breeding Day. Plant breeding in the renewing agriculture. Report
(Dr. László Bódis)
The Scientific Plant Breeding Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA), Department of Agricultural Sciences and the Association of Hungarian Plant Breeders gave an account of the results of research and experiments conducted in the recent years. The event took place at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on 18 March.

Cooperating partners
(bl)
We report on the cooperation agreement signed on 19 March by the National Chamber of Agriculture and the Hungarian Rural Credit Guarantee Foundation.

Generative reproductive organs of weed species in meadows, pastures and forests VII-VIII.
(Dr. Gabriella Kazinczi, Dr. Csaba Pintér)
The macro-images prepared by a special technique are completed with descriptions by an acknowledged expert in the field to improve our knowledge about weed species in meadows, pastures and forests.

Café corner (x)
(Dr. László Bódis)
AGROcafé – a café for professionals in agriculture

Book review. Imre Kádár: Sewage water, sludge, compost, organic manure
(Dr. Tamás Németh)

Biofil – new bacterial products for soil inoculation
(Dr. György Demes)
On 14 March 2014, the trading company ‘TERRAGRO Kereskedelmi Kft.’ announced the planned introduction into the market of BIOFIL, bacterial products for soil inoculation considered a world novelty. We report on the event where the managing director Dr. Éva Pénzes provided an overview of the new products, their characteristics and advantages.

Raoul H. Francé, a botanist with only the name referring to French …
(Dr. György Bálint)
The article reveals the life and work of Raoul H. Francé.

Small garden all year around. Jobs in May
(Franciska Tóthné Bogdányi)

Selecting the variety to grow and the pest management programme to apply, together in Contivo™ programme (x)
(János Bíró)
Get to know the details of Syngenta’s Contivo™ programme.

Controlling cereal diseases: three products and the scheme is complete (x)
(László Farády)
Have a look at the range of the cereal fungicides Bayer offers for use in 2014.

Higher yields without aflatoxin (x)
(Daniel Gribek)
Growers’ experience with BASF’s new fungicide Retengo® Plus is shared here.

Proven also in sunflowers (x)
(Gy. A.)
Growers’ experience of crop production based on DuPont management programme is below this heading.

Simply about biostimulation, in an easy-to-understand way (x)
(Dr. Erik Czinege)
Kwizda Agro’s foliar fertilizer for acting as a biostimulant is described here.

Laudis for higher maize yields (x)
(István Rikk)
This is the weed control offer of Bayer CropScience in maize.

Tested and proven solutions to reduce rape seed loss (x)
(Ádám Farkas)
Nufarm Hungária Kft. offers rape growers its Spodnam DC for reducing seed loss.

Extra yield -Xtra product (x)
(Dr. Zoltán Varga)
Syngenta recommends its fungicide Amistar Xtra for sunflower growers.

COLOMBUS EC. A premium herbicide for flexible use in cereals (x)
A herbicide from Dow AgroSciences for providing efficient control of annual and perennial weeds.

ZAMIR – tested and proven (x)
(Katalin Begaláné Kiszelya, Róbert Bőhm)
Makhteshim is at the disposal of sunflower growers with its new fungicide ZAMIR released last year.

Efficient weed control in maize?  Monsoon active! (x)
(István Rikk)
Bayer recommends it most recently developed herbicide, Monsoon active, for post-emergence weed control in maize.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

JOHN DEERE balers, the guarantee for high quality fodder and profitability! (x)
(Sándor Kiss)
Look at the offer of KITE Zrt. for JOHN DEERE balers in trade.

Machine museums – museum-worthy collections of machines (17) The example of “Sokoró” – the old in the new
(Dr. Béla Szekeres)
The word ‘Sokoró’ in the title exceptionally does not refer here to the small region in Northern Transdanubia, but the manufacturing and trading company “Sokoró Ipari és Kereskedelmi Kft”. The expression “old in the new” means that there can be a place for old pieces even in the factory equipped with the most recent technology.

What does the nest of the big bird hide? (x)
Practical experience and operation data about the mobile sprayer Condor are found below this heading.

Horsch JOKER: could it be small or big, it is always the best solution for the grower (x)
(Zoltán Szász)
Horsch recommends its swift, compact disc harrow for growers, designed for shallow and intensive soil cultivation.

WITHOUT FRONTIERS

The project “Hungarian seeds into Székely fields”…
(Dr. István Oláh)
On 20 March, the ceremony took place by launching the seed consignment in Martonvásár to reach the farm of St. Francis Foundation of Deva at Gyergyószentmiklós, managed by brother Csaba Böjte.

PRODUCE MARKET

Outlook to soybean market
(Dr. Zsuzsa Molnár, Dr. Ildikó Edit Tikász)
This month you may have a look at the processes taken place, regarding soybeans, in the major producing countries and global produce markets, as well as the trends in prices and crop volumes.

BIOTECHNOLGY

Let’s learn gene technology! (41) Transgenic virus resistance. II. Strategies, varieties, advantages, risks
(Dr. László Heszky)
The previous part introduced the molecular structure and reproduction processes of viruses, the knowledge of which is essential for understanding strategies in gene technology. This part presents the successes and failures in molecular approaches and modifications that, after all have allowed the introduction into circulation and commercial growing of virus resistant varieties of certain plant species.

VEGETABLE GROWING

The quality and possible role of special beetroot varieties in Hungarian vegetable consumption
(dr. Takácsné Hájos, Gergely Csilla)
The author lets us have an insight into a trial established in 2012 in order to study the morphological traits and chemical composition of special beetroot varieties and their inclusion into Hungarian commercial growing.

Nutrient supply for processing tomatoes (x)
(András Kovács)
This is Yara’s offer to tomato growers for nutrient supply.

FRUIT GROWING

Up-to-date spindle trees for apples
(Dr. László Szalay, Tamás Szentpéteri)
In the latest concept of apple orchards, the classic spindle trees with lower scaffold branches have been more and more replaced by super spindle trees. The idea is to create trees close to a cylindrical shape instead of the ones with upward pyramid shape. In connection with the modern apple spindle trees, we draw the attention to the factors affecting spacing between and within the rows, the various kinds of planting material and the criteria of determining ideal tree height.

VINE GROWING AND WINEMAKING

Dr. József Csizmazia Darab (1918-2013) (1)
(Dr. Edit Hajdu)
The article outlines the work carried out by dr. József Csizmazia Darab, the discussions and success around resistant varieties, in honour of the memory of recently deceased breeder.

The story of an old bottle of aszú wine
(Pál Tomcsányi Sr.)
Pál Tomcsányi, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences delivered a speech at the ceremonial meeting organised for handing over the bottle of the oldest Tokaj aszú wine. We recall the details of the talk presenting the museum-worthy wine and its story.

Prepared for fighting downy mildew (x)
(Dr. István Füzi)
BASF recommends Enervin® to grapevine growers to control downy mildew.

LOOKOUT

FARRE symposium on integrated pest management
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
The author guides readers to the symposium organised in France by the association FARRE on integrated plant protection. He provides an insight into the most important issues discussed there.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
Interesting articles published in foreign technical journals are reviewed below this heading.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Note for growers. About household gardens (2)
(Miklós Kurucz)
A great many might have surprised at hearing that the Ministry of Rural Development had announced the programme of strengthening household farming. There has been a time of silence around this topic. We hope that we are living in a period of peaceful development. However, let’s see where we started from, what we have passed through and where we can get to regarding this issue. This Notes is seeking the answer to these questions.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past … Gyula Miklós (1832-1894)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month readers may get acquainted with the life and work of Gyula in Miklós the frame of our series presenting the great persons contributing to agricultural development in Hungary

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)