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Agroforum 2014 October

Wandering in the Székely Land (Dr. László Bódis 1

TOPIC OF THE MONTH
Anti- erosion soil conservation and the key tasks in Hungarian lands (Dr. Jenő Horváth) 6
The author explores the factors threatening our land, showing the process of erosion, its forms and the caused damages. He also discusses the key points and methods of soil conservation to control erosion.

No bank financing available? We are to give a helping hand! (x) 15
Have a look at how Rural Credit Guarantee Foundation can help growers if they do not obtain bank loan.

FOCUSING ON TILLAGE
Still more knowledge is needed! (Dr. Márta Birkás) 16
The number of specific climate phenomena has not become lower. After a mild winter there was a shortage of water in the soil that was mitigated only by the end of May. The variable early summer was followed by a rainy July. Until September, it was raining every other day, and then came the wind and cooling. The studies conducted at various production sites indicate the increasing number of climate-related risks. In connection with this topic, the author recalls the forecasts of climatologists to our region. She presents the climate phenomena and evaluates the solution options. The article draws the attention to the possible risks in autumn and the means of their control. Finally, it lists the climate-related dilemmas of growers in 20 points.

The challenges of tillage in autumn and the options to meet them (Dr. István J. Jóri) 26
This paper outlines the conventional tillage operations in autumn after early and late precedings. The author presents the most recent methods that may revolutionize crop production and within it the tillage system and related practices.

WORTHY OF ATTENTION
Dangerous plant diseases (II. 12) Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV (Dr. Pál Salamon, Dr. László Palkovics, Dr. Katalin Salánki) 33
This part of the series presents the plant virus CMV, causing the most severe damages in our country. Its morphology, genetic organisation, replication process, variability, virus strains and movement in the plant are discussed. The authors also outline the most important diseases caused by this virus and inform on the diagnostic methods, as well as on the options for its control.

Trials with winter barley varieties carried out in 2014 for resistance to diseases (Bernát Poós, Blanka Kovács) 39
As last year, the authors from the National Food Chain Safety Institute (NÉBIH), Directorate of Plant Production and Horticulture give an account of the trials carried out with winter barley varieties for economic values, in particular their response to diseases.

A season of field shows (bl, dgy, mz) 42
The article illustrated with pictures reports on three events: a national meeting on maize, soybean and grain sorghum organised by the 90-year-old Cereal Growing Non-profit company (Gabonakutató Nonprofit Kft.), maize and sunflower programme delivered by Debrecen University and the national meeting on cereal growing and maize demonstration held by the Agricultural Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Marton Genetics.

The effect of water on the biology of pests (Dr. Sándor Keszthelyi) 49
The author summarises the effect of water on invertebrate pests based on the rainfall conditions experienced in 2014. He outlines the tolerance of pests to extreme water conditions and their responses to adverse circumstances.

NURELLE D – perfect protection against pests (x) 54
A double-effect insecticide for rape growers from Dow AgroSciences is presented below this heading.

Bread, grapes and wine, celebrated for the eleventh time in the Great Plain. Report (Dr. István Oláh, bl) 56
The article summarises the conclusions of the conference titled “The treasures of the Carpathian basin within and outside the frontiers”, focusing on bread, grapes and wine and organised in the Great Plain.

Success lies in the details – or let us apply foliar fertilizers even in autumn! (x) (Kálmán Gyuris) 60
This is Yara’s recommendation for nutrient supply to rape and winter wheat growers in autumn.

A The importance of growing cereals and grapes and making wines in Hungary and in particular in the Great Plain (Dr. Ferenc Szépe) 62
Why are vine-growing and winemaking, as well as cereal production so important? Why do these two topics complete each other in life in the Great Plain? The author from the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture gives the answer to these questions in the article.

Galldorf Zrt. offers its services in feed production and trading (x) (Tamás Popovics) 64
Get to know the feed producing and trading company “Galldorf Takarmánygyártó és Kereskedelmi Zrt.”

Hungarian Soy Non-profit Ltd. (Magyar Szója Nonprofit Kft.) has been established to increase the share of health protecting food made of Hungarian basic materials (x) (Gábor Seiwerth) 65
The Hungarian Soybean non-profit company “Magyar Szója Nonprofit Kft. introduces itself.

Café corner (x) (Dr. László Bódis) 66
AGROcafé – the café of the agricultural sector.

Pantera 40 EC – the simplest way to solve the problem of grass weed control (x) (Péter Kertész) 68
This is Chemtura’s offer for grass weed control to sunflower and rape growers.

Reproductive organs of other species V-VI. (Dr. Gabriella Kazinczi, Dr. Csaba Pintér) 70
A recognised expert prepared descriptions to the macro-images made with a special technique in order to widen our knowledge about the seeds of other weed species.

Field scouting. From innovation to field renting (bl) 72
We report on the recent meeting of the Crop Round Table (In Hungarian: TERKA), discussing innovation and land issues.

Production data of crops harvested in summer – 2014 (NAK, FM) 74
It has been a tradition that Agrofórum publishes the final production data requested from the responsible authority. In 2014, the National Agricultural Chamber has taken over this task – together with yield forecasting, from NÉBiH (National Food Chain Safety Office) while it is the Ministry of Agriculture that is entitled to publish these data. We present the final production data with the consent of the Ministry of Agriculture.

From peppers to princess tree (Paulownia tomentosa) (Dr. László Bódis) 77
We talked with the main organizer and host of the First Hungarian Agro-forestry Forum held at the agricultural cooperative “Kék Duna Mezőgazdasági Szövetkezet” on 29 August.

Agro-forestry long ago and now (Dr. Andrea Vityi, Dr. Béla Marosvölgyi) 80
The article presents the term “agro-forestry”, its past and the various forms of agro-forestry systems. The authors also outline the project called “AGFORWARD” supported by EU funds and targeted to assist rural development by applying agro-forestry systems.

Is black locust an invasive plant or a valuable tree species of agro-forestry systems? (Bernadett Gálya) 82
The article undertakes to fully address the question raised in the title from every aspect. The author presents both the benefits and the disadvantages of black locust trees. At the same time, it offers a solution to manage the conflict created among growers and civil and professional organisation engaged in nature conservation.

Small garden all year around. Jobs in October (Franciska Tóthné Bogdányi) 85

MECHANISATION, MACHINES
To the margin of a press conference (2) Ten Fendt Vario tractor models in the range of 50-500 HP in four output categories (Dr. György Demes) 87
As it was already mentioned in our previous number of September, AGCO/FENDT tractor manufacturing company presented its novelties for 2014 at an international press conference. Now we highlight the characteristics of Fendt 300 Vario models.

Horsch Joker HD – robust execution, planned for real challenges (x) (Zoltán Szász) 91
Horsch GmbH recommends growers its Joker HD disc.

WITHOUT FRONTIERS
Farmers’ day in the Székely Land (Dr. Somogyi Norbert) 92
The Federation of Hungarian Growers in Romania held the Farmers’ day in the Barn Theatre organised by “Maros” association in Mikháza located close to Szováta, on 6 September. The idea was to create a tradition of an event unifying all the advantages of a series of technical presentations, a local agricultural exhibition and an informal meeting of growers.

Images of wandering in the Székely Land (bl) 95
The article wishes to raise interest for one of the most beautiful regions of Transylvania.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY
Lookout to rape market (Dr. Ildikó Edit Tikász, Dr. Zsuzsa Molnár 96
The authors outline the processes taking place in the global market of rapes and the foreseen trends in prices.

BIOTECHNOLOGY
Let’s learn gene technology (45.) Technologies (terminator, traitor) genetically limiting the growing of GM varieties (Dr. László Heszky) 98
The second part of chapter VII, dealing with the genetic modification of growth and development outlines terminator technology, the approach ethically discussed all over the world. Due to the wide international objections, no GM variety of food plant species has been produced by using the patent also called “sterile seeds”.

VEGETABLE GROWING
Hygiene guidelines for common mushroom growing (Dr. András Geösel, Anna Szabó) 104
It is involved in intensive mushroom growing that, depending on the conditions prevailing in the facility, due to continuous production, the prevalence of pathogens and pests causing significant yield losses can increase. We publish this article in order to assist our mushroom producing readers to easily eradicate such outbreaks. The authors give recommendations for common mushroom producers applying different management programmes to ensure appropriate hygiene during the phases of implementation (spawning, casing, covering, cropping, cleaning, disinfection, etc.).

FRUIT GROWING
Tatura (Dr. László Szalay) 108
Tatura is a small town of 3500 inhabitants in Australia, 170 km to the north of Melbourne and is famous, in particular for its cattle breeding and dairy industry. If fruit growers hear this name, they do not think of that, rather of a very special shape of tree. This article informs on that.

Pruning demonstration in Soroksár. Report (Dr. László Szalay) 110
The Department of Pomology of Budapest Corvinus University holds their annual meeting titled “Demonstration of intensive apricot and peach management system and the applied pruning” in late July. This year the event took place in the experimental orchard of the department on 29 July. The article gives an account of what was seen and heard there.

VINE GROWING AND WINEMAKING
Tall grapevine grafts (Dr. Gábor Zanathy) 112
The use of tall grapevine graft is making a great headway in various countries. This is the case e.g. in Germany where such “bean-pod” graft accounts for more than 15 % of the total number. What could be the reason of this increasing demand? What is behind the fact that grafts three times higher than the usual are sold for the double price? The article wishes to give the answer to these questions, presenting in addition to the benefits, also the disadvantages of using tall grapevine grafts.

Bayer Meeting – this time in a vineyard. Report (Dr. György Demes) 115
The country-wide meeting of Bayer CropScience, having become known during the past years as “Be there”, took place in grapes at Eger, in the Research Institute of Viticulture and Oenology of Károly Róbert University College, on 27 August. Due to the success of the previous events, a high number, about 250 vine-growers were interested in the programme. The article gives an account of what was seen and heard there.

Pest management programmes in grapes – 2014. Report (Zsuzsanna Györök) 119
The article reports on the meeting and demonstration of experiments held in Rádpuszta on 2 September and organised by Syngenta Kft., Bayer Hungary Kft., DuPont Hungary Kft., Kwizda Agro Hungary Kft., Jeli 2000 Kft., VitiCOOP Kft. and the company of Plant Doctors of Balatonboglár ‘Boglári Növényorvos Kft.’ The event focused on the experiences of professionals with pest management in vineyards in 2014.

Run-off spraying in autumn against grapevine powdery mildew (x) (Terézia Dula) 121
This is what Dow AgroSciences recommends to vine growers for the control of powdery mildew.

LOOKOUT
Browsing in foreign journals (Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh 63, 76
Certain articles published in foreign technical journals are reviewed here.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS
Note for growers. About one and a quarter century (Miklós Kurucz) 124
The current Note deals with the past, present and future the Ministry of Agriculture founded 125 years ago.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. Imre Rázsó Jr. (1904-1964) (Miklós Kurucz) 126
This month readers may be acquainted with the life and work of Imre Rázsó Jr. in the frame of our series presenting the great persons contributing to agricultural development in Hungary.

Written anno … (Dr. Péter Inczédy) 128