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Agroforum Extra 14.

“Common wheat”
(Dr. László Bódis)

About the cereal market after the EU accession
(Dr. Béla Kováts)
The article discusses the frequently asked question of how the two years passed after the EU accession have been equal to our expectations regarding the cereal product chain, in particular in terms of safety and predictability. The author gives an account of the production and marketing conditions of the time between 2003 and 2005, and outlines the issues related to the acceptance and storage of cereals offered for intervention. He believes that the solution is to use the crop for alternative energy source, in particular in the case of maize.

Quality assurance system for cereals
(Zoltán Hajdú)
The experience of the EU-accession has confirmed that traceability of the product needs to be ensured at each step of growing, processing and trade (from the farm to the table) not only for complying with EU legislation but also for meeting market requirements. We may read about good agricultural practice (GAP) whose requirements, if met, allow preventing risks involved in production and storage. The article indicates the reasons why traceability of the product is so important. In addition, the author presents the quality assurance system called EUREPGAP that applies traceability principles for field crops. Finally, he draws the attention to quality parameters of intervention acceptance that will change in the single cereal market from July 2006.

The relationship of nutrient supply and certain agronomic factors on crop quality and quantity of winter wheat
(Dr. Péter Pepó
)
Winter wheat is one of the most demanding and responsive crops of all the cereals. The article gives an account of a small-plot field trial carried out to reveal the effects of nutrient supply, variety, plant protection and crop rotation on yields of winter wheat. The experiments were conducted on calcareous chernozem soil in the eastern part of Hungary (Hajdúság), based on testing varieties with Bocz-method. It is concluded from the results that balanced nutrient supply was a key element of the management programme, increasing crop quality and quantity, at the same time, its efficacy was significantly modified by genotype, the season, the preceding and the applied pest management programme.

Smart nutrient supply
(Dr. Péter Csathó, Dr. Tamás Árendás, Dr. Tamás Németh)
In our days every grower makes efforts to reach high yields and maximum benefits at the least inputs possible. The key points of the targeted crop management programmes are reducing fertilizer costs to a minimum level and using the available resources cost-efficiently by establishing harmonic nutrient supply of soils. The advisory system for fertilizer application developed by the Research Institute for Soil Science and the Agricultural Research Institute – both of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – can assist growers to achieve this goal. The system gives advice at four levels of fertilizer application, such as minimum, environmentally friendly, balance-oriented and integrated nutrient supply. The two institutes evaluate the recommendations of the advisory system in field trials carried out in the frame of a 3-year-programme (2004-2006). The article informs on the results obtained to the moment and the conclusions of the trials established on three soil types (Ramann-type brown forest soil, meadow soil and calcareous chernozem).

Note for growers. The key issues of machinery association
(Miklós Kurucz)
This part of the series presents the machinery association as a special society for mutual benefit, because machinery services are based on invoicing at prime costs. The author informs readers on the organisation of the association, the business rules approved by the members’ meeting and the most important administrative and record keeping tasks. He points out that the machinery association can also provide profitable service (outside the association), e.g. snow removal, ditching, park maintenance, etc., furthermore, in foreign countries machinery associations are involved also in rural tourism.

New winter wheat varieties in commercial growing
(Sándor Kovács)
The specialist of the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) gives an account of the eight new winter wheat varieties included in the National List of Varieties for 2006. The evaluated varieties are: KG Kunglória, GK Békés, GK Csillag, Vojvodina, Pannónia NS, GK Szala, GK Hunyad, Eurofit. Among them five are early, two are midseason and one is a late-season variety.

(War) report from Debrecen
(Dr. László Bódis)
The article reports on the round-table conference organised by the Crop Production and Landscape Ecological Department of the Agricultural Centre in the Debrecen University, discussing the current issues of the wheat sector in Hungary.

To be fair about Hungarian wheat quality
(Béla Tóth)
The author begins the evaluation of the current state of Hungarian wheat quality with an overview of wheat growing of the past two decades. He continues with identifying the problems of high quality wheat growing and drawing the attention to the possible solutions (regular exports, targeting to meet the quality requirements of international market of wheat for food and saving the majority of the crop with appropriate financial and technical means even in rainy seasons). Finally, he points out the conditions that we have and the ones that are missing.

The present and future of weed control in cereals in the light of the agro-environment programmes
(István Dávid, László Szabó)
The registration of several herbicides has been withdrawn or registration has been constrained to restricted use during the past few years. Beside this, certain agri-environment programmes have further limited the range of herbicides that can be applied. The authors summarise, in a tabulated form, the active substances and spectrum of herbicides registered for use in cereals. Furthermore, they list the products allowed and the ones prohibited in winter wheat and winter barley in compliance with the agri-environment target programmes. In addition, they mention the characteristic and dangerous weeds in cereals, discuss the means of non-chemical control and the general aspects of chemical weed control in winter and spring cereals.

RAPID – an effective insecticide – under any conditions (x)
(István Szabó)
This is a new-generation pyrethroid insecticide by Dow AgroSciences.

Six years’ experience with pathogens causing leaf spot of winter wheat
(Mária Csősz)
The author gives an account of her experience of six years’ studies conducted at the Cereal Research Institute. Her investigations focused on surveying the occurrence and estimating the damages caused by four necrotrophic pathogens (yellow leaf spot, Septoria leaf spot, Septoria nodorum blotch and spot blotch). The article gives answers to the following questions: How did the composition of pathogen populations change by year and place? How resistant are our varieties to natural infection? In addition to natural infections, a system of artificial inoculations was also created. We may get to know the levels of infection of treated and untreated plots and the damages caused by the diseases. At the end of the article, recommendations can also be found to reduce yield losses.

Pests of winter cereals in late winter and early spring, possibilities for their control
(Dr. Kálmán Szeőke)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Fejér informs on the pests occurring in winter cereals during late winter and the spring. In addition to outlining the damages and biology of corn ground beetle, western corn rootworm and field vole, he also deals with the means of their control.

Quality wheat growing with Bayer products (x)
(László Farády)
This is Bayer CropScience’s recommendations for the protection of cereals.

Options for decreasing spray losses and drift with in-crop application
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
The efficacy of the currently applied spraying techniques is rather poor. About 15-40 % of the sprayed liquid does not reach the target area. In addition to the economic and efficacy drawbacks, pesticides getting lost impose excessive risk to the environment. This is why the specialist of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering presents the technical options for reducing spray drift. The article describes the particular nozzles designed for this purpose (anti-drift, nozzles with injectors), as well as other means of drift control (deflector, airbag spraying). Finally, the author lets readers have an insight into the recent techniques addressing the problem.

Management programme of winter wheat and prospects for development in the Matyó Cooperative in Mezőkövesd
(Attila Magda)
This is a summary of grower’s experience about producing winter wheat.

What is the value of winter barley?
(Zsolt Sümegi)
The article shares the grower’s experience with the management programme of winter barley from Enying Agri Co.

The risks of long-term storage of cereals and possibilities for preventing them
(Ágnes Szerényi Németh)
Storage ability refers to the safe way and time of storing cereals given in relation to temperature and moisture content. The author gives an account of the factors influencing storage ability of cereals and summarises the decay factors (moisture content, temperature and storage period). He also deals with the possibilities for protecting stored grains and the tasks of the professionals in order to keep the crop at quality and quantity as measured when loaded in the storage facility.

Development of drying technologies in storage facilities
(Dr. Mihály Herdovics)
The specialist of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering provides an overview of the present conditions of Hungarian drying facilities. He outlines the key requirements that the drying technologies must meet. Finally, he presents the results and the conclusions of the tests and analyses performed to improve the standards of technologies in drying plants.

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)