Agroforum Extra 16.
About the ragweed eradication campaign
Geographical distribution, morphology, biology, importance and control of common ragweed
(Dr. Imre Béres, Róbert Novák, Zsuzsanna Hoffmann Pathy, Dr. Gabriella Kazinczi)
The article provides an overall picture of ragweed, all that is worthy of attention about one of the most dangerous weeds of our times also from the point of view of public health. After giving an account of the taxonomy, names, origin and geographical distribution of common ragweed, the authors inform readers on the morphological traits and the biology (life cycle, reproduction strategy) of this weed. In addition to dealing with the allergenic role of the plant, its allelopathic effect and useful characteristics are also mentioned. The study is finished with describing the possibilities of controlling ragweed (mechanical control, biological methods and chemical treatments in the particular crops).
Possibilities of controlling ragweed in sunflowers
The specialist of the Central Service for Plant Protection and Soil Conservation presents chemical weed control in sunflowers, in particular the efficient treatment of ragweed. The article begins with the criteria for selecting the field when planning crop rotation, followed with weed populations in sunflowers. Finally, the author gives an overview of chemical weed control and summarizes the best techniques used against ragweed (pre-emergence, post-emergence and spraying directed below the leaves), mentioning the recommended herbicides.
Successfully, also against ragweed (x)
The development manager of Bayer CropScience recommends the three “M”s: Merlin (isoxaflutole), Mester (foramsulfuron + isoxadiphen-ethyl + iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium), and Monosoon (foramsulfuron + isoxadiphen-ethyl) for efficient control of ragweed in maize.
Pollen concentration of ragweed in the past 50 years
(Dr. Anna Páldy)
The deputy director of the National Institute of Environmental Health of Fodor József National Centre for Public Health gives an account of measuring ragweed pollen concentration in the air carried out by the Aerobiological Network of National Medical and Public Health Office. The further part of the article analyses the changes in ragweed pollen concentration based on various parameters. Data on pollen concentration were recorded between 2000 and 2005 at eight monitoring stations.
Activity in 2005 of the Inter-departmental Committee “Ragweed-free Hungary”
The head of department in the Office of Public Health Commissioner presents the Inter-departmental Committee for “Ragweed-free Hungary”, established in February 2004 with the participation of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Employment and Labour, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment and Water, Ministry of Economy and Transport, Hungarian Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Finance. In addition to informing on the most important results of the Committee achieved in 2005, the article lets us have an insight into the scope of activities necessary for further reducing ragweed pollen concentration.
The role of land registry in the official control of ragweed
The role of the Institute of Land Surveying and Remote Sensing (FÖMI) in the ragweed control of public interest is to prepare and up-date the risk maps based on satellite images, as well as to operate the “ragweed-server” ensuring electronic data exchange among the relevant authorities. The specialists of the land registry offices carry out identity check of ragweed-spots with coordinates according to the Uniform National Projection (EOV) on the site, using a notebook equipped with GPS. After the field inspection, the officer compares measuring results with the cadastral map containing also topographic numbers of the fields, then sends the protocol with the land user’s data to the plant protection and soil conservation service concerned.
Official procedures with changed legislation background
In 2005 the Parliament amended the Act 35 of 2000 on Plant Protection with the aim of solving the ragweed problem. The basic motive directing the amendment was the principle that gave priority to the right for healthy life over the right for and protection of private ownership. The administration procedure has speeded up thanks to the changes as it is not necessary to contact the client in a special notice, warning him/her to observe the provisions of law. Unfortunately, many people are not aware of the amendments, in spite of the fact that the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation County Services have made them public by several official warnings via the local media in 2005. Therefore the specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Békés gives a clear account of the legal procedure applied by the Services and their consequences.
Official actions of ragweed-control in 2006 at the plant protection and soil conservation services
The officer of the Central Service for Plant Protection and Soil Conservation deals with the regulations addressing land users in order to carry out successful ragweed control. The author informs readers on the treatments of public interest performed by the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service, their costs and the magnitude of the imposed plant protection infringement fees.
Problems and experience of official procedures related to ragweed in the area of competence of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of county Pest
(dr Gabriella Benécs Bárdi, Dr. István Winkler)
The authors believe that generally the major sources of ragweed infestation in county Pest are the fields privatized in the frame of the compensation act and to a lesser extent, the very small fields allocated from the cooperative share, causing plenty of problems, several times discussed in a legal procedure. They describe the eight stages of the official procedure applied during the ragweed eradication campaign in 2005. Then they give an account of the problems that inspectors face during the legal procedures (the lack of precision of protocols, shortcomings of land use record keeping, the obstacles in reliable carrying out of treatments of public interest, the collection by the Tax and Financial Control Administration (APEH) and the refusing behaviour of land users). The Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of Budapest and County Pest has confidence in that this year the owners of real estates will be more willing to voluntarily observe the rules due to last year’s official measures and public pressure.
Joint efforts against ragweed in county Pest
On the initiation of the Labour Centre of County Pest, the heads of five institutions of public administration, lead by the president of the general assembly of County Pest, concluded a cooperation agreement on 24 May 2005 in order to implement a concerted campaign to control ragweed. By that it has become a joint task of the administrative bodies of county Pest to support and increase the efficacy of any activities to reduce populations of allergenic weeds and prevent their spread in order to protect human health. The cooperation established at county level in 2005 needs to be continued to assist concerted actions against ragweed.
The authors Experience of the local government of Gyula in the anti-ragweed campaign
(Zsuzsanna Tóth Durkó)
The environmental officer of the Mayor’s Office of the town Gyula gives an account of several years’ experience of the local government in the ragweed-eradication campaign.
Ragweed control of public interest in 2005: lessons learned at the district offices of land registry in county Békés
The head of department of the Office of Land Registry of County Békés informs on the experience in the county from the point of view of the county offices of land registry.
Opinion. Ragweed is over, “thanks” to the new amendment of the law
The author begins with summarising the problems occurred due to ragweed-infestation in the country, and follows with mentioning the reasons why there has been no significant decrease in pollen load by the weed plant. He lists and evaluates the changes in legislation (with positive and negative effects) and those made by the government to increase the number and efficacy of official measures. Finally, he summarises the experience and problems of professionals that also call for changes and improvement in addition to the above mentioned.
Ragweed problem from the point of view of a professional and an enterprise participating in a control of public interest
The article summarises the most important stages in the process of ragweed distribution in Europe, the current allergy situation, as well as the experience of the enterprise undertaking to carry out treatments of public interest in 2005.
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)