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Agroforum Extra 17.

Maize of the world
(Dr. László Bódis)

RESULTS OF THE HUNGARIAN MAIZE RESEARCH

Workshop in Debrecen

Key agronomic factors in maize growing
(Dr. Péter Pepó, Dr. László Zsombik, Attila Vad, Sándor Berényi)
The authors analyse the previous year’s weather conditions from the point of view of the vegetative and generative development of maize in the fields. They also show the results of their trials carried out in 2006 on the effect of the preceding, crop stand and weed control on yields. Furthermore, they deal with the study of factors influencing volume weight that is important because of the new EU standard on the quality of maize.

The effect of crop density on the yields of maize hybrids
(Dr. Mihály Sárvári, Nóra El Hallof, Zsuzsa Molnár)
Growing at higher crop density had a key role in increasing maize yields to 2-2.5 times of the original one in Hungary. At the same time, the authors draw the attention to that it is not enough to identify the optimal crop densities for the hybrids, but the particular crop density-intervals not involving significant yield loss also need to be studied. They outline and demonstrate with figures the effect of plant density on maize hybrids in different years, volume weight depending on hybrids and crop densities, and the relationship between crop density and maize quality. In addition, they group maize hybrids according to their suitability for increasing plant density, and make proposal for crop density intervals.

Our “new” energy crop: maize
(Dr. Péter Pepó)
The article presents maize, in addition to its traditional use, as a renewable energy source. The author gives the definition and the importance of bioenergy, highlighting the role of producing bioethanol from maize. He stresses the necessity of bioethanol production in Hungary from economic aspects. Nevertheless, he emphasizes that growing maize in high quality and quantity can be reached only by using excellent genetic bases (hybrids) and professionally applying up-to-date cultural techniques.

Workshop in Martonvásár

Objectives and results in Martonvásár
(Dr. Csaba Marton L., Dr. Géza Hadi, Dr. János Pintér, Dr. János Horváth)
The authors present the history of maize breeding in Martonvásár from 1953, when five maize hybrids of the research institute were included in the national list, to the present. Furthermore they outline the performance of the material bred in Martonvásár through the example of certain hybrids.

Drying in the crop stand. Or wetting? About the moisture content of ripe maize
(Dr. Tamás Árendás, Dr. Csaba Marton L., Dr. Péter Bónis, Dr. Zoltán Berzsenyi)
When choosing the varieties, growers prefer the hybrids which, in addition to giving fair yields on the long run, quickly loose water and whose seed moisture content at harvest is low. Besides hybrid productivity, maize is also studied every year in Martonvásár for the characteristics of loosing water. The article summarises the results of the investigations carried out between 1999 and 2006, outlining the seasonal effect on the seed moisture content of hybrids of different ripening times.

The effect of production site on quality parameters of maize
(Dr. Zsuzsanna Hegyi, István Pók, Dr. Csaba Marton L.)
Recently chemical composition of maize hybrids has gained more importance, involving the need for improving quality parameters such as protein, oil and starch content relevant not only for feeding but also for human consumption. We can follow the experiment of the Agricultural Research Institute in Martonvásár, carried out to determine the internal quality traits of maize hybrids and to reveal the effect of ecological factors to such studied parameters. We can read about the conditions of the experiment, the results according to FAO ripening groups and the drawn conclusions.

Workshop in Szeged

Direct use of maize for producing energy
(Dr. Endre Széll, Péter Streb)
In the past decades the development of technologies using renewable energy sources has come to the foreground all over the world. In Hungary, the focus is on crops such as maize, sorghum, sunflowers and rapes. As regards maize, bioethanol production is stressed. At the same time, this needs significant investment, therefore its cost-efficiency is doubted. This is why the Cereal Research Institute deals with the direct use of maize for producing energy. Its primary aim could be to reduce demand for fossil energy in heat generation. Completing with figures, the authors inform on how maize can be directly used for energy production.

Maize hybrids bred in Szeged and production trials
(Dr. Sándor Szél, Dr. László Kálmán, Dr. Endre Széll, Dr. Katalin Mórocz Salamon, Péter Streb)
The article informs on the characteristics of maize hybrids released from Szeged, furthermore evaluates last year’s effect on growing, sowing time, crop density, nutrient supply and weed control.

EXPERIENCE IN PLANT PROTECTION

Experience in controlling western corn rootworm
(Zoltán Papp)
The author summarises the trials having been carried out by KITE Agricultural Service and Trade Corporation since 2002 to control western corn rootworm. The majority of the treatments was targeted against larvae, but adult control was not neglected either. The trials covered the following topics: the amount of yield loss, seed treatment, soil disinfestation with liquid and granulated products, soil treatment with cultivatoring, in-crop treatment of larvae, adult control and forecasting of the pest. The article is finished with the experience of the trials and recommendations for control.

Weed control in maize – experience and novelties
(László Szabó, István Dávid, Kamilla Buzsáki, Zsuzsanna Hoffmann Pathy)
The authors begin with outlining certain fundamental rules of weed control in maize that must not be neglected even in our days. They draw the attention to the importance of cultural techniques in weed control in addition to herbicide use. They discuss the modes of application of herbicides, their advantages, the possibilities of successful treatments of dangerous annual and perennial weeds and the novelties in postemergence weed control in maize.

DISTRIBUTORS’ OFFER

DEKALB. Genetics – Technology – Income (x)
(István Szanyi)
Monsanto Trading Ltd. recommends its new DEKALB hybrids for maize growers.

PIONEER STUDIES. Let’s think together – growers and Pioneer – about growing, from month to month! (x)
(Dr. László Piukovics)
Pioneer’s product manager presents the performance in 2006 of Pioneer maize hybrids and the results obtained in breeding HO sunflower hybrids.

Hungarian Kwizda in a new section of weed control in maize
(Tivadar Mathiász)
Novelties from the herbicide range of Hungarian Kwizda in maize.

DAMMANN – trac 2000 H self-propelled field sprayer (x)
(Tamás Starcz)
The advantages of using trac 2000 H mobile field sprayer outlined by a professional of Dammann.

The new Goal duplo. You can only love it … (x)
(István Szabó)
Dow AgroSciences recommends the new Goal duplo for chemical weed control in sunflowers.

Saaten-Union’s hybrid maize programme in 2007 (x)
(Zoltán Blum)
Saaten-Union’s maize hybrid offer for 2007.

LG 33.30: maize for grain in high crop quality and quantity (x)
(Dr. Károly Kupi)
Limagrain Hungary Ltd. recommends its new hybrid ‘ARANYSZEM’ (‘Golden Eye’) to its maize growing partners.

Premium maize hybrids from KWS (x)
(Dr. Sándor Nagy)
These are the hybrids offered by KWS for maize growers.

“Cooperation” of biology and chemistry in the integrated control of western corn rootworm (x)
(Dr. Erik Czinege, Csaba Csorba, Balázs Szeidl)
Monsanto, Kemira GrowHow and Bayer CropScience recommend the combination of the most recent elements of the crop management programme for growers to help their successful control of western corn rootworm.

Keeping on with Syngenta hybrids also in the changing economic environment (x)
(Tivadar Boncsarovszky)
Syngenta offers new possibilities for the new challenges.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Book review. Dr. Lásztity Borivoj: The accumulation of natural nutrients
(Dr. Tamás Árendás)
In his book, the author, a retired professor of the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, summarises the results of his studies on the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients of cereals.

25 years of AUSTRO DIESEL, 60 years of MASSEY FERGUSON
(Dr. György Demes)
The Austrian Austro Diesel GmbH, the general importer of the world-famous Massey Ferguson agricultural machines (tractors, drillers harvesters, teleloaders) in Austria and the neighbouring Central and Eastern European countries has recently celebrated the 25th anniversary of its foundation. At a press conference on this occasion in Vienna, the head of the company, Johann Gram gave a brief overview of the results, services and product range of the company.

New solutions to new challenges
(Dr. György Demes)
On its meeting with partners in December 2006, the Field Crops brand of Syngenta Seeds Ltd., the managing director László Albrecht gave a brief overview of the challenges Syngenta Seeds faces in 2007 and the ways they wish to answer it in the future.

SEKAB and the Hungarian bioethanol
(Károly Henger)
The article presents SEKAB, a Swedish company interested in producing bioethanol and outlines the plans of the Hungarian representation of the firm in the alternative use of maize.

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)

ANNEX:

Experience of maize variety trials, 2006
(József Csapó)
The expert of the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) gives an account of small-plot trials carried out by the Institute in 2006 to compare registered varieties in grain and silage maize. Tables show the overall results and in certain cases grain yields and gain moisture content at harvest.