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Agroforum Extra 18.

Rapes – past, present future
(János Falusi, Bálint Falusi)
The article gives an overview of global and Hungarian rape growing, including area, yields and crop volume in the past 40 years. In addition, it presents the changes in rape breeding and chemical composition (in fatty acids), as well as the future use of the crop. The article also deals with the history of Hungarian rape growing.

CROP PRODUCTION PROGRAMME

Soil cultivation in rapes deserves more attention
(Dr. Márta Birkás)
The author sums up the recommendations of one-time and present experts regarding preceding and soil cultivation for rapes. She discusses the requirements of the crop for soil conditions in the seedbed and the root zone, furthermore, she calls the attentions to avoid the concomitant mistakes. The key steps of the rape production programme after a cereal preceding are stubble management, basic tillage suited to the particular soil condition and levelling, seedbed preparation and sowing. The article outlines operations in the stubble, and points out the importance of reducing moisture loss. It gives an evaluation of basic tillage (ploughing, loosening, cultivatoring and disking), and informs on the related quality requirements. The author mentions the optimal timing of seedbed preparation and the one-pass way of seedbed preparation and sowing. Finally, she summarises critical points of the cultivation system.

Specifying the nutrient demand for rapes in spring and timing of application
(Zoltán Blum)
The article focuses on revising nitrogen doses for rapes. The importance of N-supply in spring and the dynamics of N-uptake by the crop are stressed. The factors modifying nutrient supply are listed and the criteria of deciding on the details of N-supply in spring are analysed. Weather, crop conditions and variety or hybrid characteristics are the bases for the annual scheme of applying N fertilizers, indicating quantity, timing and splitting. The author recommends growers to follow a nutrient supply strategy that allows reaching maximum yields in good years, while it does not increase unacceptably the specific production costs in poorer seasons.

How can rape yields of 4 t/ha reached?
(László Honti, Zoltán Papp)
In Hungary, the rape growing area has only seldom exceeded 100 thousand hectares, with the average yields of about 2.5 t/ha in good years, that does not come even to the half of the Western-European ones. As high yields are mostly related to the crop management programme, it is worth studying the elements of such programmes applied in Western Europe, and to adapt them to Hungarian conditions. KITE Agricultural Service and Trade Corporation has been carrying out such trials for years. The professionals share their results and experience in details with readers, going through the elements of the intensive crop management programme.

Focusing on rapes. Round-table discussion at Arysta LifeScience
(Dr. György Demes)
Arysta LifeScience organised a season-closing meeting in November 2006 with rape growing as one of its main topics. The crop is in the centre of interest, its present and future prospects were discussed by recognised professionals.

Pioneer rapes in Hungary (x)
(Dr. László Piukovics)
Pioneer recommends MAXIMUS hybrid rapes for growers.

Recommendations for growing spring rapes
(Zoltán Blum)
The article outlines the management programme of spring rape compared to winter rapes. The elements dealt with are: soil requirements and soil preparation, choosing the variety, sowing, nutrient supply, pest management and harvesting.

What can we count on in rapes for early spring?
(Dr. Teréz Eőry)
The author, based on the conditions of winter rapes in November 2006, presents her recommendation, depending on different weather forecasts, for timing nutrient supply and plant protection treatments in order to reach yields as high as possible.

New rapes from Saaten-Union in 2007 (x)
(Zoltán Blum)
This is Saaten-Union’s hybrid and variety list for rape growers.

A new colour on the palette: Bázismag Ltd.’s rape offer (x)
(Ferenc Szóta)
Bázismag Ltd. recommends rape growers the hybrids ELDO and BETTY and varieties BOURBON and ELLA in the frame of MARTON GENETICS oilseed crop programme.

Current prospects for rapes supported by Monsanto (x)
(dr. Erzsébet Kiss)
It contains rape hybrids and varieties from Monsanto Hungary Ltd.

Rape overview before winter (x)
(János Ofenbeck)
What was the winter like for the rape variety ONTARIO? You may know it from the article written by a professional of Limagrain Hungray Ltd.

PLANT PROTECTION, CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL

Time schedule for spring operations in winter rapes (x)
Dow AgroSciences recommends its rape management programme.

It is worthy protecting rapes against fungi also in Hungary (x)
(Dr. István Füzi)
BASF Hungary Ltd.’s development manager summarises the experience of small- and large-plot, as well as of farm trials with fungicides carried out in 2006.

New challenges in the control of rape diseases
(Tibor Barasits)
The article highlights the new challenges involved in applying intensive crop production programmes, such as rape diseases. The author describes them and outlines their control.

Foliage protection in winter rapes (x)
(Szabolcs Hőgye)
DuPont Hungary Ltd. recommends the fungicide Alert S (flusilazole + carbendazim) for foliage protection in winter rapes.

Rape blossom beetle is on the decline …or considering rape pest outbreaks in spring
(Rita Baranyai Tóth)
The author draws the attention to the control of rape pests in spring in order to increase the level of growing the crop. Information on the major pests is followed by calling the attention to their inevitable control in spring, listing the registered insecticides for use in rapes.

Spring weed control in rapes
(Péter Ughy)
The author gives an account of the current state of rape fields, weed infestation, indicating the major weed plants. The second part of the article deals with the possibilities of their control in early spring.

Efficient pest management in rapes respecting bees (x)
(István Rikk)
Bayer CropScience recommends its systemic insecticide Calypso (thiacloprid) for use in rapes.

Rapes, Talstar and Kwizda (x)
(Tamás Fehér)
Hungarian Kwizda draws rape growers’ attention to its spring package.

GROWERS’ EXPERIENCE

About the overwintering of winter rapes at Mezőhegyes
(Dr. Zoltán Szabó, László Páll)
The article lets us have an insight into the practice of winter rape growing at Mezőhegyesi Ménesbirtok Co., outlining cropping area, preceding, tillage, seedbed preparation, sowing and field scouting. The authors highlight the agronomic elements which are critical for the overwintering of the crop.

Facts and hopes about rapes in 2007 at Balatonfő Co.
(Béla Klopp)
The author gives a brief account of the objectives of rape growing at Balatonfő Co., basing the already accomplished and the forthcoming elements of the crop management programme. Furthermore, he informs readers about the conditions in the fields, depending on weather and the operations carried out there.

LOOKOUT

Rapes review
(Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular selection of interesting articles published about rapes in foreign technical journals.

OTHER ISSUES

Production of rapeseed oil – is it feasible?
(Elemér Simonfalvi)
The author stresses the importance of Hungary’s possibilities for growing the raw material for bioenergy and producing bioethanol and biodiesel. He believes that in the next couple of years there will be an increased demand for rapeseed and its oil. Therefore, it is desired to place the product on the market at a higher grade of processing. However, to achieve that, many conditions need to be satisfied. Without that we can only go on with producing the raw material.

Finotto high-clearance self-propelled sprayers (x)
Interat Co. presents the advantages of using the mobile sprayers of Finotto.

The use of rapes and sunflowers directly for producing energy and fodder
(Dr. Endre Széll, Péter Streb, Ákos Ferencz)
The authors share their thoughts with readers about the direct use of rapes and sunflowers for producing bioenergy and feeding. The first one is the use of cold-pressed plant oil for fuel, while the second one is referred to feeding cattle, sheep and swine with the pellet as the by-product of cold-pressing.

Plant protection – bee-keeping – bee poisoning (1)
(László Szentpáli)
The forensic expert gives an account, in the frame of a series of articles, of the circumstances of plant protection activity frequently causing mass bee death in various crops during his work for more than 30 years, in order to draw conclusions. In the present part he deals with laws and other pieces of legislation specifying the conditions of plant protection and bee-keeping, and analyses certain legal cases in connection with rapes.

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)

ANNEX. The results of winter rape variety trials, 2006
(Gábor Szekrényes)