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Agroforum Extra 19.

SITUATION ANALYSIS

Current state and prospects of Hungarian fruit growing
(Dr. F. Erdész)
There have been various changes in fruit growing and trade throughout the world in the past decade. New operators have appeared on the market, in particular the dynamically developing countries of the southern hemisphere which, with their high volume of cheap products, present a big challenge to the “conventional“ players of the market. In Hungary, the volume of fruit growing has decreased by 44% during the past 15 years, which means that our country is more and more falling behind the upward international trends. The author points out the importance of Hungarian fruit growing, as well as the problem of low domestic consumption. At the same time, she outlines the prospects of Hungarian fruit growing in solving the problems after the EU accession. She also describes the causes of changes in the production structure, resulting in the increased share of stone fruits at the expense of apples. She encourages growers’ cooperation in order to mitigate the problems affecting the sector. This can be implemented through a well-organised work and the uniform activity of growers’ sales organisations. It is followed by the draft of the new vegetable and fruit reform of the EU and the Rural Development Strategic Programme for a New Hungary. Finally, we may get to know the major tasks to be performed for the comprehensive development of the sector.

Thoughts about our fruit growing based on the experience of an exposition
(József Szabó)
In the first part of the article, the president of FRUITVEB – the Hungarian Inter-professional Organisation of Vegetable and Fruit Growing – and of the Product Council shares his experience with readers about Fruit Logistica. This is an annual exhibition, the leading technical fair of fruit and vegetable growers and distributors in the world, organised between 8 and 10 February. The event gave opportunity for producers to exchange views about the results of growing. In addition, visitors could have a look at the range of products of the particular countries, the better and better packaging methods and processing techniques. In the second part of the article, based on the experience of fair, the author evaluates the position of Hungarian fruit growing, providing useful advice and information to help the sector’s development in Hungary.

CROP PRODUCTION ISSUES

Apple varieties grown in Hungary
(Dr. Tibor Szabó)
The article gives an overview of using the particular apple cultivars in terms of yields and the volume of the produced grafts. It deals with selecting cultivars in the nursery and before planting, furthermore, presents the prospects of growing the so-called “club varieties”. Finally, the author summarises his experience and forecasts for Hungarian apple production.

Old landscape cultivars regaining importance in apples
(Zsolt Szani)
The author focuses the article on the traditional Hungarian apple cultivars. He displays the growing regions of 13 old cultivars on a map, and gives a brief description about them based on the articles published at the late 19th century.

Changes in growing apricot cultivars
(Dr. Andrzej Pedryc, Rita Hermán)
The authors inform readers on the share of apricot cultivars used in producing propagating materials, following with the changes in the range of cultivars available on the Hungarian market. They give an account of the apricot-breeding work undertaken at the Department for Genetics and Plant Breeding of the Budapest Corvinus University. The results are four cultivars included in the National List of Varieties currently authorized for propagation in Hungary. In addition, they deal with the recent apricot hybrids declared for state registration, mentioning their origins.

Novel traits of new Hungarian walnut cultivars
(Zsolt Szani)
Walnut production is based on basically two cultivars. The rather insufficient choice has been completed with 5 cultivars in the past few years. The article intends to show their importance, characteristics and advantages.

Thinking about the changes in apple training systems
(Ferenc Takács)
With the introduction of new cultivars, new training systems have spread in Hungarian apple growing. The application of the up-to-date training systems allows a more flexible adaptation to the rapidly changing market and consumer demands; furthermore, the labour-intensive operations can also be carried out more easily, therefore more quickly. However, the author draws the attention of growers to use the cultivars, rootstocks and training systems only after testing them under Hungarian ecological conditions. When planning the establishment of an orchard, a key element of choosing the training system is the selection of an appropriate rootstock. Therefore, the author discusses the groups of available rootstocks. In addition, he informs readers about one of the experiments carried out at the research station in Újfehértó. The suitability of the particular rootstocks grown with two cultivars was studied, using two training systems and four plant spacing, with the aim of using them in Hungary.

PLANT PROTECTION

Fighting fireblight: possibilities and doubts
(Dr. Tamás Bubán)
Fireblight control has remained a problem still to be solved. The disease seriously threatening fruit growing is caused by a bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. The author summarises the host range of this pathogen and the economically important damages recorded nationally and internationally. He discusses the details of control methods, such as the preventive chemical treatments, using antibiotics and other products, as well as the options of biological control.

Rust diseases of apples
(Dr. Klára Véghelyi)
The plant pathologist gives an account of the Gymnosporangium species causing rust diseases of apples, pears and quince, and describes the means of their control.

Options for powdery milder control in organic orchards
(Dr. Imre Holb)
The author reveals the causes of the different susceptibility of apple cultivars to powdery mildew. Furthermore, the cultural, mechanical and biological, as well as chemical controls of the pathogen are summarised.

Cultural, mechanic and biological methods of controlling apple scab
(Dr. Imre Holb)
Apple scab caused significant damages in the past rainy seasons in apple orchards with both conventional and environmentally friendly pest management programmes. The success of the primarily chemical control is highly influenced by that, whether other, non-chemicals-based techniques are also used and if so, to what extent, for the prevention of the disease. This is why the author presents the cultural, mechanical and biological methods of controlling apple scab in order to improve its success.

Kwizda programme in stone fruits (x)
(Béla Mészáros)
This is the list of products recommended by Hungarian Kwizda Ltd. in the frame of their programme “supplying nutrients and protecting the crop” for stone fruit growers.

From bud burst to harvesting with Syngenta pesticides! (x)
(Ákos Forrai)
Syngenta Ltd. presents it pesticide offer for apple producers.

Novelties against scab and weeds in apple orchards! (x)
(Lajos Balogh)
Dow AgroSciences Systhane recommends apple growers to use the mixture of Systhane duplo (myclobutanil) and Dithane DG Neotec (mancozeb), as well as Goal duplo (oxyfluorfen) for weed control.

A new BASF programme for apple protection from 2007 (x)
(István Füzi)
The development engineer of BASF Hungary Ltd. draws growers’ attention to the company’s new apple scab management programme.

Possibilities for brown rot control in sweet and sour cherry orchards with ecological management programme
(
Dr. Imre Holb)
Brown rot is one of the most devastating diseases of stone fruits, provoking shoot and twig blight. The disease can be successfully controlled in sour cherry orchards where the principles of integrated production are followed, by using systemic fungicides. However, the joint application of various direct and indirect means of control may give good results in ecologically managed sour and sweet cherries. Among them, the issue of cultivar susceptibility, the methods of cultural, mechanical and biological control, and last but not least the regular use of natural product-based fungicides need to be addressed. The author lets readers have an insight into their use.

Recommendations for protecting stone fruits and nuts in spring
(Szabolcs Makó)
In the February number of our journal, we published a comprehensive article by this author about the plant protection operations in stone fruits and nuts at late winter and early spring. In the present paper, the author gives a tabulated, updated summary of his former recommendation for chemical control in spring till petal fall, taking the currently registered (February 2007) pesticides into consideration.

About walnut pests and diseasesstudies and results
(Dr. Sándor Kadlicskó, Dr. Csaba Pintér, Dr. Géza Fischl, Ferenc Simon, Dr. Sándor Süle, József Dankó, Attila Jakab, Szabolcs Makó)
The authors gave an account of the pests and diseases of walnut in a former number of our journal (volume 13, No. 8), also discussing the means of their control. In the present article, they provide an overview of the problems and their solutions, arisen in the past three years, based on the results of trials with bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests.

Monilinia brown rot of our fruit crops
(Dr. László Palkovics, Marietta Petróczy)
Brown rot of apples and stone fruits threatens our fruit trees year by year. The diseases are caused by two pathogens in Hungary: Monilia laxa and Monilia fructigena. Monilia laxa provokes flower and shoot blight and fruit rot on stone fruits, while Monilia fructigena affects only the fruit, both in apples and stone fruits. The authors summarise the process of the diseases caused by the two pathogens and the symptoms, and also inform on the available control methods. Finally, they call the attention to a new quarantine pathogen, Monilia fructicola.

Criteria of applying fungicides to control brown rot in stone fruits
(Ágoston Tóth)
The author summarises the contact and systemic fungicides available for controlling brown rot of stone fruits, as well as the conditions of successful control in terms of agronomy and application technique.

Products for wash-off spraying
(Ágoston Tóth)
The author summarises, in a tabulated form, the pesticides registered for use in orchards for wash-off spraying in autumn and spring.

Trapping European shot-hole borer (Xyleborus dispar)
(Dr. Miklós Tóth, Dr. István Szarukán)
Damages of shot-hole borer have more and more frequently been recorded, in particular in apple and apricot orchards in the past few years. Canadian researchers reported already in the eighties that beetles were intensively attracted by ethanol. Swiss scientists developed traps that consisted of red sticky boards and a vessel placed below and containing ethanol solution. The authors present the experiments they carried out in order to study the methods of trapping shot-hole borers under Hungarian conditions.

Forecasting models for the meteorological station of Metos – “APPLES”(x)
Agrárin Ltd. presents the possibilities of forecasting apple scab.

Dangerous pests (II/9) Plum moth
(Tamás Hegyi, Mária Szántó Veszelka)
This part of the series on dangerous pests takes plum moth under the magnifying glass. Readers may get to know the economic importance, taxonomy, host plants, geographic distribution, biology, as well as the natural enemies, forecasting and the control of the pest.

LOOKOUT

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular review of certain interesting articles published in foreign journals.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Selecting, adjusting and operating sprayers
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
In orchards, the success of control highly depends on the technical characteristics and operation of the used sprayers. Inappropriate selection of the machine to be used and the inaccurate adjusting may lead to losing a significant volume of the spray and unnecessarily loading the environment. If the distribution of the chemical deposited on the canopy is not even, protection will not be sufficient. Orchards of different training systems and ages have different requirements for treatment. Therefore it is important to select and apply an appropriate technique. The author wishes to assist growers in this.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)