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Agroforum Extra 21.

Introduction
(Dr. István Csibor)

Frequently asked questions and answers to ragweed procedure of first instance
(Attila Labant)
The author gives an account of the authority responsible for ragweed control, its procedure and legal background.

Snapshot with growers and notaries
(compiled by: Norbert Rácz)
Notaries and growers speak about the way they are fighting against ragweed.

“Ragweed-cases” on trial
(Dr. Orsolya Vercseg, Dr. György Almási)
Considering that growers and land users not always meet their obligations in weed control, to do so is enforced by official measures of the public administration. Ragweed has become a special weed with the increasing concern for public health. This is why the measures are different from the general provisions against weeds, they are more stringent. As “ragweed season” is coming soon, the authors outline the official measures land users have to be prepared to in certain cases, including judicial proceedings.

Is ragweed public enemy No. 1 of allergy?
(Dr. Gyula Berta)
The author begins with giving the reasons why the number of allergic diseases has been increased. He highlights the major environmental factors that may provoke allergy. Naturally, the kinds of allergic diseases caused by ragweed and the available options for their control are not missing from the article either.

Ragweed and pollen allergy
(Dr. Miklós Juhász)
There are about two million people in Hungary who are suffering from pollen allergy. In the majority of the cases the main causing agents are autumn weeds, mainly ragweed. The allergenic effects of pollens released by the particular plants are different. For ragweed pollen, the allergy threshold is around 30 pollens/cubic metre, while e.g. over 100 pieces of tree pollen per cubic metre are needed to provoke allergy symptoms in the majority of affected persons. Therefore, the author and his colleagues have been measuring ragweed pollen concentration for several years. They present their results in a tabulated form in this article.

What should we know about ragweed plants?
(Zsuzsanna Hoffmann Pathy)
The specialist of the Agricultural Office of county Somogy (former plant protection and soil conservation service) presents one of the currently known most dangerous allergens among the most important two hundred species causing pollen allergy, i.e. ragweed. You may get to know the origin of ragweed, its spread and the main reasons of its mass increase in population. She also discusses the morphology and biology of the weed.

Against ragweed – in gardens and public areas
(Béla Radvány)
The author summarises the various methods of ragweed control. He outlines the well-known ways of mechanical control (hoeing, mowing soil covering, grassing, etc.), and the means of chemical weed control (using selective and all-in products).

In addition to the programme of “Ragweed-free house and ragweed-free municipality” the programme of “Ragweed-free stubble” is launched
(Éva Péterfia)
The author describes the activity of the “Inter-ministerial Committee for Ragweed-free Hungary” and the objectives of the programme called “Ragweed free stubble”.

Competitiveness of ragweed in sunflowers
(Dr. István Dávid)
The author and his colleagues studied the competitiveness of ragweed in sunflowers. In order to efficiently and cost-effectively manage this weed, it is necessary to specify the competitiveness and yield-decreasing capacity of ragweed.

Efficient weed control in sunflowers using ExpressÒ-tolerant herbicide –hybrid system (x)
(Dr. András Gulyás, Dr. István Molnár, Dr. Elemér Tóth)
DuPont Hungary Ltd. and Pioneer-Hibred Plc. recommend their programme based on using PR63E82 sunflower hybrid and the herbicide Express 50 SX (tribenuron methyl) for sunflower growers.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)

ANNEX

Fungal diseases of winter wheat and control options
(Péter Hertelendy, Dr. Pál Békési)
The article discusses the groups of the most important winter wheat diseases and the available genetic, cultural and chemical methods to control them.

A more efficient programme against ear head blight of wheat
(Ákos Mesterházy, Gábor Kászonyi, Csaba Kótai)
The authors studied the efficacy of chemical control of ear blight, depending on the application technique, the used fungicides and wheat varieties.

Using cereal fungicides in this season (x)
(László Farády)
These are the fungicides that Bayer CropScience recommends for cereal growers.

“Mysterious” pathogens of winter wheat
(Zoltán Áy)
The author presents the wheat viruses most common in Hungary. He discusses the damage caused by such viruses, their geographical distribution and the options for their control.

Cereal pests
(Dr. Kálmán Szeőke)
The entomologist of the Agricultural Office of county Fejér gives an account of the major pests occurring in cereals (field rodents, soil pests, larvae of corn ground beetle, wheat flies, barley leaf beetle, aphids and other sucking insects) and methods to manage them.