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Agroforum Extra 24.

PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF SOFT FRUITS

Fruit market overview
(Róbert Lux)
The author gives an overview of the current state of Hungarian fruit growing, and concludes that the sector is unable to follow the global increase of demand for fresh commodity, though the ecological conditions of the country, the traditions of our production, the almost unique flavours of Hungarian varieties can be transformed to a significant economic advantage that involves the possibility of not only keeping the existing markets but also their expansion. The market position and prospects of soft fruits are also presented per each crop.

Soft fruit varieties in Hungary
(Dr. Ferenc Dénes)
Fertőd Research Non-profit Company’s investigator describes the characteristics of soft fruit varieties in the particular crops, i.e. strawberries, raspberries, currants, blackberries and gooseberries, taking into account the key points of their growing.

Soil and nutrient demand of soft fruits
(M. Szilvia Deák)
Soft fruits, due to their place of origin, are generally nutrient-demanding crops with considerable differences among species and cultivars. The author gives an account of the most important aspects to consider before their planting and the environmental requirements of the particular species.

Integrated pest management in soft fruits
(Mária Szántó Veszelka)
Environmentally-friendly pest management techniques have a special importance during the production of soft fruits. Their principles and outcomes can be learnt from the article.

Weed control in soft fruits
(Attila Hornyák)
Soft fruits remain in the same field for several years after their planting. Therefore special attention should be paid to avoid considerable infestations by weeds hard-to-control by herbicides. This can be achieved by emphasising the importance of total weed control before planting. In order to increase efficacy, it is necessary to combine chemical control with mechanical methods. The article presents the possibilities involved in chemical and mechanical weed controls in the particular soft fruit crops (raspberries, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, elderberries and blackberries).

Requiem for a fruit crop
(László Cseh)
The professional of the Hungarian Federation of Freezing and Canning Industries looks back to the past of Hungarian raspberry growing. He presents the current situation in the sector and finally describes growers’ prospects.

Is it necessary to fight raspberry cane midge?
(Gábor Vétek)
Raspberry cane midge is a pest known in Hungary for a long time and generally distributed all over the country. Fortunately, the importance of raspberry cane midge has been decreasing in the Hungarian fields that can be attributed to various reasons. among them, to the general use of varieties showing higher level of tolerance to raspberry cane midge. In addition, dry and warm summers have also an adverse effect on the pest. In the past few years, the staff of the Department of Entomology in the Corvinus University of Budapest carried out a monitoring programme in the major Hungarian raspberry fields, including studies with this pest. The article summarises the results and informs on the options of control.

Crop management programme in autumn fruiting raspberry varieties mirrored in ‘Autumn Bliss’
(Orsolya Benedek)
The raspberry cultivars, whose buds differentiate in August – September and produce fruits only the next summer, are called cultivars with a single fruiting period. There are certain cultivars where buds on the sucker shoots finish their development quickly (by late July – early August), and such first-year shoots bring fruit already in autumn. They are the autumn raspberries producing on suckers. The author presents the characteristics of growing such cultivars and the advantages of their production through the example of ‘Autumn Bliss’.

Growers’ cooperation and production safety
(Attila Kosztolányi)
Berkenye is a small village with some hundred inhabitants, 20 km to the north of Vác, in the vicinity of the picturesque Börzsöny Landscape Protection District. Similarly to other localities of the county, this place has become rightly famous also for following the soft-fruit growing traditions of the region, raspberries in particular.

Raspberry growing overview from Rétság
(Attila Kosztolányi)
This is a report with Imre Zomborka about his experience in raspberry growing, the applied crop management programme, cultivars and nutrient supply.

Thornless blackberries
(László Vajnai)
The advisor gives an account of the key aspects to be taken into consideration for planting blackberries and provides guidelines for growing the crop.

Pest management challenges in a blackberry field of county Nógrád
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We asked dr. Attila Kakuk about his blackberry field in the outskirts of village Nógrád, his experience with planting and coming to bearing, as well as about the pests and diseases that gave plenty to think about in plant protection work.

Outdoor growing of strawberries – the practice followed at Drégelypalánk in county Nógrád
(Attila Kosztolányi)
In this an interview Margó Andalik, a family farmer speaks about her experience with field growing of strawberries, and the elements of the applied and well-proved crop management programme.

Reviewing foreign journals
(Translated by: Borbála Benedek)
You may get to know the various biological methods to control mites and thrips in strawberries from this review of an article published in a foreign technical journal.

Currant growing in Ipoly valley
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We talked with József Hulmány and his wife about the situation of soft-fruit growing, the strength and weak points of the currant management programme implemented in the Ipoly valley, as well as about their several decades’ experience in growing.

PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION OF APPLES AND STONE FRUITS

Dangerous pests. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella)
(Tamás Hegyi, Mária Szántó Veszelka)
Codling moth, irrespective of the management system, is one of the major pests of apples. In the frame of the series on dangerous pests, you may get to know more about its morphology, biology, damage, and last but not least, about the options for its control.

A new moth affecting fruits in apple orchards: the “mysterious” Grapholita species
(Gyula László)
By the end of autumn 2007, moth injury became more significant than the average in a significant part of the Hungarian apple orchards. The author presents the possible reasons of such severe infestation by the moth, also dealing with the alternatives of its control in the new situation.

Rapid, accurate, steadfast… Apacs 50 WG (x)
(Sándor Herpai)
Arysta LifeScience Hugary Ltd.’s professional recommends Apacs 50 WG for controlling aphids in pome fruits and peaches.

Pests and diseases in apple orchards of county Zala in 2007
(Veronika Liposits, Gizella Lőrincz Izsányi, Annamária Tüh)
The specialists of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Directorate in the Agricultural Office of County Zala give an account of weather conditions during the growing season in 2007, following with the situation regarding pests and diseases at the particular growth stages.

Possibilities for increasing market stability and transparency in the Hungarian apple sector through the example of Germany
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
Based on his experience in Germany, the author summarises the prospects of development in the apple sector. Among the various sector problems, he emphasises market (in)stability, being a general feature of the apple sector and the whole fruit growing industry not only in Hungary but also in other countries of the European Union.

The role of ESTA® Kieserit in the nutrient supply of orchards (x)
(Dr. Eszter Zsom)
K+S KALI GmbH recommends ESTA® Kieserit for balanced nutrient supply of fruit orchards.

Dangerous plant diseases. Peach leaf curl
(Dr. Klára Véghelyi, Szabolcs Makó)
The present paper of the series dealing with dangerous diseases focuses on peach leaf curl, the morphology of the pathogens causing the disease, their biology, geographical distribution, host range, the symptoms appearing in the particular crops within stone fruits and the available control measures.

Pests and diseases in orchards in 2007 (2)
(Miklós Tóth)
The second article by the specialist of the Central Agricultural Office, presenting the pest management situation of the past year deals with apricots, peaches, sweet and sour cherries and plums. You may get to know what was year 2007 like from the point of view of the major pests and diseases in the particular crops, and what can we count on this season?

Pest management in apricots through the eye of a plant protection professional
(Aurél Dandó)
The plant protection professional summarises his several-decades’ experience with the factors influencing apricot pest management and with pests and diseases.

New Hungarian sour-cherry varieties
(Zsolt Szani, Dr. Tibor Szabó, Ferenc Szőke)
Two new sour cherry varieties were included in the national list in December 2007. The breeding programme of Ferenc Szőke draw the attention of the Fruit Growing Research and Advising Non-profit Company to the varieties selected around Kisvárda from seedlings of unknown origin. The varieties were studied on the Variety Testing Station at Pölöske of the Agricultural Office. The article reveals the results.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

The choice is rich in orchard sprayers
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
It is not easy to be familiar with orchard sprayers so different in size, equipment, design, and last but not least, in purchase price. This is why the specialist of the Hungarian Institute of Agricultural Engineering gives a brief overview of the choice, then draws the attention to certain aspects important in selecting the sprayer.

Landini Rex-series – the tractor of year 2008 (x)
The international jury of Agritechnika Exhibition in the Hannover Fair granted the title “The tractor of 2008” to Landini Rex-series.

Vine growing with Antonio Carraro tractors (x)
Antonio Carraro tractors distributed by Agrolánc Ltd. are recommended here.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

A reliable means of plant protection every year (x)
(László Petter)
This is a talk with Dr. Géza Gabi, deputy director of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Directorate of County Tolna about a Syngenta programme based on forecasting and warning in the Szekszárd wine region.

Legal page. About the protection of land
(Dr. Lajos Szabó)
The legal advisor writes about the Act on land that came into force at the beginning of this year. In connection with it, he informs on the scope of the act, namely what is considered land under the scope of the act.

Talentum Academic Award of 2007 was handed out to a young scientist of Debrecen University Press release
The president of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences acknowledged Imre Holb, a young scientist of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering for his outstanding scientific achievements with Talentum Academic Award on 18 February 2008.

Book review. The life and work of Albrecht Thaer as a medical doctor and a farmer
(Dr. Imre Kádár)
The Hungarian publication of the Thaer biography assists a more worthy recognition of the scientific role of this influential personality.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)