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Agroforum Extra 27.

Kukorica–Corn–Mais–Kukuruza
(Dr. László Bódis)

The melting pot of maize
(Dr. Sándor Mórocz)
Progressing crop production has increased not only the grain yields per unit area, but also involved the changes in the appearance of the plant and the composition of kernels. The diverse genetic material of maize consisting of several ten thousands of alleles offers an enormous variation even without the genetic rearrangements causing effects of genetic function. The narrow inheritance background of the grown hybrids does not cause a problem in genetic development, but the introduction of exotic varieties into breeding is necessary for revealing the new heterosis patterns and increasing variability assisting selection.

Is Hungarian maize breeding international?
(Dr. János Németh)
The article summarises the lecture giving account of the history and results of Hungarian maize breeding in terms of international co-operations. It was delivered at the event titled “Fifty years of the seed production programme of Hungarian hybrid maize” held in Debrecen on 6 November 2008.

Fifty years of producing hybrid maize seeds in Hungary
(Zoltán Benke)
Hybrid maize seed production dates back to a 50-year-history in the country. On this occasion the author from the Agricultural Office provides an overview of the seed producing areas and the quantities of certified seeds from the beginning to these days based on the annual publications of the controlling authorities (National Seed Inspectorate, National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control, Agricultural Office).

Agronomic and physiological relationship of increasing maize yields
(Dr. Zoltán Berzsenyi)
The investigator of the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences gives an account of the agronomic and physiological factors influencing yield increase in maize. He also draws the attention to the combinations of the particular factors as options for raising yields.

Certain issues of using and growing maize
(Dr. Endre Széll, Károlyné Dévényi)
What are the potentials of the particular crop management elements, such as tillage, nutrient supply, preceding crop, weed control, pest management for mitigating fluctuations of maize yields? The paper of the investigators of the Cereal Research Non-profit Company gives the answers to this question.

The main agro-meteorological characteristics of the maize growing season in 2008
(Szabolcs Bella)
The author from the National Meteorological Service provides an overview of the main meteorological characteristics recorded during the maize growing season in 2008.

Selecting varieties – possibilities and risks
(Dr. Dénes Szieberth)
The article, presenting the results of variety trials carried out by the Hungarian Maize Club, may assist growers to make good decisions in selecting the varieties to grow.

The role of agronomic characteristics in increasing profitability of hybrid maize production (x)
(Dr. Szilárd Tóth)
Limagrain maize hybrids are at the disposal of growers.

Hybrid-specific fertilizer application and optimal crop density for maize
(Dr. Mihály Sárvári, Beáta Boros)
The authors are assisting producers by providing them with information about reasonable nutrient supply and determining optimum crop density.

New Synplus hybrids among the leaders in their maturity group! (x)
(Tivadar Boncsarovszky)
Syngenta Seeds Ltd. publishes last year’s performance of Synplus maize hybrids for growers.

The agronomic issues of maize quality
(Dr. Zoltán Győri, Dr. Péter Sipos, Diána Ungai)
The authors describe the effects of increasing fertilizer rates and different production sites on the protein content of maize hybrids. Furthermore, they evaluate the impact of crop rotation and fertilizer application on the quantity of the most important amino acids. In addition, they discuss the issue of phosphorous and zinc-content of maize plants and kernels, respectively, depending on fertilizer rates, crop growth stages and production sites.

The recognised Hungarian quality resulted in an increased market share for hybrid maize bred at Martonvásár (x)
(Dr. Emil Bodnár)
How did maize hybrids bred at Martonvásár perform in 2008? Read the article to know more about the topic from a professional of Bázismag Ltd.

Nitrogen fertilizer application and the nutritive value of grain maize
(Dr. Ferenc Dér)
Several research results have clearly confirmed that grain maize responses to N-fertilizer application with increased yields. However, the investigators of Kaposvár University were interested in the effect of different N-fertilizer levels on the nutritive value of maize. They concluded from their studies that the conspicuous yield increase caused by the application of rising N-rates was accompanied, as regards the nutritive value of grain maize, by the growth of only the raw protein content and certain amino acids. The increasing N-rates did not involve a significant difference in the nutrients other than the level and digestibility of raw protein.

Simply superbly with KWS maize hybrids! (x)
(Zsolt Kónya)
The article outlines the performance of KWS hybrids according to the experience of a maize grower.

Controlling phosphorous-induced zinc deficiency by foliar fertilization
(Dr. Péter Csathó, Dr. Tamás Árendás)
In spite of the decreasing P-supply of our soils, we face the problems of zinc deficiency induced by phosphorous even today, especially in zinc-demanding crops, such as maize, sorghum, flax, etc. The authors support this conclusion by their studies with foliar application of zinc-sulphate fertilizers. The results draw the attention to the importance of a good P/Zn balance, as more conspicuous effects can be achieved in the fields even today by microelement application than by increasing the dosages of the expensive P-fertilizers.

Quality silage maize above all. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We talked with the crop production manager Zoltán Pethő of Agroprodukt Ltd. located at Pápa, about their experience in silage maize production and ensilation.

A novelty of 2009 from Syngenta’s maize portfolio: Calaris (x)
Syngenta recommends maize growers its new post emergence herbicide Calaris (mesotrione + terbuthylazine).

Precision weed control with the smart “Weed hunter” nozzle
(Dr. Péter Reisinger, István Borsiczky)
Get acquainted with the new techniques of precision weed control, being more cost-saving, safer, more environmentally friendly and are available for practice.

Experience with DuPont’s maize herbicides in 2008 (x)
(Dr. István Molnár, István Rácz, Dr. Elemér Tóth)
DuPont draws the attention of maize growers to SuccessorÒ T (petoxamid + terbuthylazine), a new, wide spectrum herbicide conspicuous with its flexible use.

Cost-efficiency of weed management programmes in maize
(dr. Katalin Takács György, Dr. Endre Széll, Enikő Lencsés)
Properly considered weed control strategies allow us to reduce the risk of production, the adverse effects of growing on the environment and to improve crop safety. This is why it is worthy to study the effect of certain weed management programmes on crop profitability, taking weed infestation, yields and production costs into consideration.

Szekszárd and maize
(Norbert Rácz)
This is a short overview of the activity, in connection with maize, of Szekszárd NÖVÉNY Ltd. in 2008.

An alien pest in maize: four-spotted sap beetle (Glischrochilus quadrisignatus)
(Dr. Keszthelyi Sándor)
The occurrence of four-spotted sap beetle can be expected in the fields and the surrounding waste lands, in grapes and horticultural crops and even in the vicinity of resort areas along waters. However, little is known about the role of the pest in Hungarian maize fields. This is why the author from Kaposvár University presents the morphology, biology and damage of this pest.

Situation report for western corn rootworm in 2008
(Dr. Géza Vörös)
Have a look insight into the experience with larval hatching and root damage by western corn rootworm, as well as with beetle flight and injuries caused by the pest in county Tolna over the past year.

I came, I saw, I conquered – or what can we do against western corn rootworm?
(Dr. Csaba L. Marton, Dr. Zoltán Berzsenyi, Dr. János Pintér, Spitkó Tamás, Csaba Szőke)
The most effective means of controlling and mitigating damage by western corn rootworm is integrated pest management. One of the most important methods of controlling the pest is crop rotation. If maize is grown in monoculture, it is essential to include soil treatment with a proper insecticide in the plant protection programme, to be eventually completed by an insecticide treatment later in the season. According to the results of the trials carried out at Martonvásár, injury level can be significantly decreased by the optimum timing of sowing and properly applying nutrients. Finally, the authors outline the ways maize breeders at Martonvásár follow in improving resistance level of hybrids.

When and which one to use? Characteristics of traps developed for catching western corn rootworm
(Dr. Miklós Tóth)
By now, western corn rootworm may threaten maize growing with injuries all over the country. We can observe and monitor the occurrence and seasonal flight of the pest with traps. This article summarises the key characteristics and applications of the currently available types of traps.

Accessories for sticky cloak traps facilitating the catching of western corn rootworm
(Dr. Miklós Tóth, Éva Csonka, Anita Bagarus)
The investigators of the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences present, in pictures, the new accessories for cloak traps catching western corn rootworm beetles. This allows easy and rapid replacement of the sticky sheet of traps on site while the other parts of the trap may remain together without dismounting them.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)