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Agroforum Extra 28.

GENERAL ISSUES OF FRUIT GROWING

Fruit-growing districts
(János Garics)
The conditions for Hungary in the Carpathian basin are diverse both in terms of climate and soil. Suitable ecological conditions are provided for the profitable growing of about twenty temperate fruit species in the territory of the country. Various factors played part in the establishment of the growing regions at the beginning of the 20th century. Considerations about such areas have changed in the past few decades. According to the survey conducted in 2001, the major fruit crops are grown in the whole territory of Hungary. The author thinks that strengthening the role of growing regions can be a breakthrough point in the development of the Hungarian fruit sector.

The effect of climate change on crop safety in orchards
(Miklós Soltész, Dr. József Nyéki, Dr. Zoltán Szabó)
Hungarian fruit growing areas are among the European regions the most exposed to risks by extremities. This is why it is of high practical importance to get to know the kinds of extreme weather effects threatening Hungarian fruit orchards. Ranking of risks and taking into account the management options are also important. In addition, the authors emphasize the application of direct protective systems and the indirect options of preventing damages.

POME-FRUIT GROWING

Hopes and disappointments – apples in 2008
(Dr. István Gonda)
Apple growers had great expectations for the past year, hoping that crop quality and quantity will return in good market prices, slightly compensating for the losses caused by previous year’s catastrophic spring frosts.

Hungarian breeding for environmentally-friendly apple growing
(Dr. Magdolna Tóth)
Get to know the results of the resistance breeding programme launched at the Department of Fruit Science of the Budapest Corvinus University! The article informs on the variety candidates produced in the frame of this programme aiming at widening the range of the available apple varieties in Hungary.

Patentkali® – Objective: to reach top quality in fruit growing (x)
(Dr. Eszter Zsom)
The article presents the offer by K+S Kali GmbH to meet nutrient requirements of orchards.

Criteria and prospects of combined plantation of resistant apple varieties and Hungarian variety candidates
(Péter Bodor, Dr. Magdolna Tóth)
Apple is practically a self-incompatible species, although certain varieties show self-compatibility at 1-2 %. Therefore, appropriate combination of varieties is an essential criterion for successful apple growing. The authors inform on the key points to be taken into account when planning the combination of resistant apple varieties and Hungarian variety candidates.
Based on the above, the most important thing is to keep in mind the relative sequence of varieties in flowering and to compare a particular variety to those with a stable flowering time in the majority of the years. It will allow designing an appropriate combination, of course, also taking into account market demands.

Apple landraces in Transylvania
(Zsolt Szani)
The author from the Directorate for Plant Production and Horticulture of the Central Agricultural Office outlines the development of apple landraces in Transylvania and takes the ecological and anthropogenic factors one by one, playing an important part therein. He also presents the main growing regions in Transylvania, and lists of the one-time and currently available landraces.

Old Hungarian apple varieties recommended for growing again
(Ildikó Király, Dr. Magdolna Tóth)
In the article we present four old Hungarian apple varieties that can be introduced into organic or ecological production again due to their special fruit characteristics and good ecological adaptability.

Seen, heard, read. Where does “Hungarian apple” proceed?
(Attila Torma)
The National Agricultural Library and Documentation Centre, the Újfehértó Research and Extension Centre for Fruit Growing, the Local Government of Municipality of Csenger and the North-East Hungarian Fruitgrowers’ Association (ÉKASZ) held a joint meeting in Budapest to discuss the problems of Hungarian apple growing and the prospects of a renewal.

Seen, heard, read. Greener and healthier apple trees
A trial has been recently concluded at the Department of Floriculture and Dendrology of Budapest Corvinus University about the effects of Pentakeep V fertilizer on fruit grafts. Professor and head of department dr. Károly Hrotkó as responsible for the trial and his colleagues gave an account of the obtained results.

STONE-FRUIT GROWING

Current situation and future prospects of sour-cherry growing in terms of cost-efficiency (1)
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The series launched now carries out a thorough economic examination of the severely affected and declined Hungarian sour-cherry sector. The first part provides an overview of the cost-benefit analysis of sour-cherry production in the country.

Compact vase system for pruning apricots
(Dr. László Szalay)
The author from Budapest Corvinus University presents the up-to-date tree form of intensive apricot growing, i.e. compact vase, being the most widespread abroad. He outlines the criteria of choosing rootstocks and summarises the Hungarian experience with the particular varieties obtained up to now during the creation of the training system.

Apricot growing for fresh market. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
This is a talk about the requirements of apricot growing for fresh market, the critical elements of the crop management programme (nutrient supply, pruning, fruit thinning, etc.), varieties and the possible directions of changing varieties.

Frost resistance of flower buds and flowers of peaches
(Dr. László Szalay)
Among the overwintering organs of peach trees, the flower buds are the most affected by frost damage during winter. The frost resistance of flower buds is continuously changing depending on the inherited traits of the variety and the environmental conditions. Growers have been interested for a long time for questions such as “What is the exact temperature (oC) that flower organs can stand without injury at particular times during winter? How big fall in temperature (oC) during winter will involve the production of only a few or no fruits on the trees the next season?” The answer to all these can only be obtained by carrying out thorough laboratory analysis of the overwintering organs.

Options for widening the range of plum varieties in Hungary
(Dr. Szilvia Kovács)
Among fruit crops, plums have the highest share in the produced volume after apples, peaches and sour cherries in Hungary. Similarly to other fruit crops, the composition of the plum variety range grown in the country is continuously changing. Considering the marketing prospects and consumers’ habits, the greatest demand is for new varieties in the early and late-season ripening group. Among them the author presents the varieties (Silvia, Valjevka, Katinka, Tegera, Hanita, Empress, Jojo, Elena, Presenta, Top-series) that can gain field in Hungarian plum growing for the near future.

An overview of pest management in the 2007-2008’ season (2)
(Miklós Tóth)
The author from the Directorate of Plant Protection, Soil Conservation and Agri-environment of the Central Agricultural Office outlines the past year’s pest management situation in orchards, arranged according to the main fruit crops (apples, pears, apricots, peaches, plum, sweet and sour cherries).

Dangerous pests (12) Major leaf mining moths in orchards
(Dr. Klára Balázs, Dr. Kálmán Szeőke)
The present part of the series on dangerous pests provides an overview about the importance of the major leaf mining pests in orchards, their spread, biology, natural enemies and other means of their control.

Mating disruption with pheromones in Hungarian orchards (x)
(Gyula László)
The professional of Biocont Hungary Ltd. summarises his experience with confusion technique using pheromones against moth pests.

A new pest of thornless blackberries: yellow-legged clearwing (Synanthedon vespiformis)
(Mária Szántó Veszelka Dr. Gábor Szőcs)
The authors from the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Directorate of the Agricultural Office of County Nógrád and the Plant Protection Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences give an account of the occurrence of a new pest, yellow-legged clearwing in thornless blackberry fields. They also inform on their studies about forecasting the insect, indicating the conclusions and the options available for growers to control this pest.

Non-conventional pheromone-traps for controlling insect pests of fruits
(József Vuts, Dr. Miklós Tóth)
As a result of investigations carried out at the Plant Protection Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, pheromone traps are available for almost a hundred pests among the Lepidopera species, beetles and other insects, revealing the optimum timing to control these pests. The majority of them are the so-called sticky traps (RAG) that are however, not suitable at all for catching various pests affecting orchards. Modified funnel traps (series VARb3) are non-conventional sex-pheromone traps devised for catching such insects. The authors present the traps with variation by colours for pests with colour preference and supplied with pheromonal and floral baits.

Diseases in fruit nurseries
(Dr. Klára Véghelyi)
The author gives an account of the particular virus, bacterial and fungal diseases, as well as their causing agents that, infecting the rootstock or the scion establish at the grafting or budding sites. They can cause the low vigour of the scions, make them shrivel or prevent callus formation at the place of removed suckers from rootstocks and at pruning sites.

Critical points of the apple pest management programme (x)
(Ákos Forrai)
This is Syngenta’s plant protection offer for apple growers.

Fireblight: past and present
(Dr. Mária Hevesi, Anita Végh, Dr. Magdolna Tóth)
The authors from the Faculty of Horticulture of Budapest Corvinus University summarise the international and Hungarian history of fireblight. They present the options of forecasting and preventing the disease. The outline of mechanical and biological control options is not omitted from the article either.

Weed infestation and its control in orchards
(Attila Hornyák)
The specialist of the Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Directorate of the Agricultural Office of County Nógrád gives an account of the weed infestation and their control options in pome-fruits (apples, pears, quince), peaches, apricots, sweet and sour cherries and plums.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Inauguration at HUNGEXPO – Budapest Fair Center (x)
A fruitful beginning is waiting for professionals in agriculture in the biggest Hungarian fair of the sector.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)