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Agrofórum Extra 33.

Extracts from our fruit growing data

The situation of Hungarian fruit growing
(Dr. László Szalay)
The volume of the global fruit production has shown a steadily increasing trend in the recent decades, while in Hungary the opposite direction has been conspicuous. The article reveals the reason why, and presents the problem-species (apples, sour-cherries and peaches) and also the ones (apricots and sweet cherries) involving high production potentials.

The market environment of the domestic fruit growing
FruitVeB (National Fruit and Vegetable Interprofessional Organisation) prepared a report in May 2009 about the current situation of the vegetable and fruit sectors together with the things to do. Without aiming at completeness, we publish certain conclusions from the paper in connection with the Hungarian market environment of fruit growing

Change over to quality production – the single way out. Interview
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We asked József Szabó, the president of the National Fruit and Vegetable Interprofessional Organisation (FruitVeb) about the conditions affecting the Hungarian fruit sector, the current problems and their possible solutions.

Which is the way forward in fruit growing?
(Dr. Ferenc Tóth)
The answer to the question indicated in the title is given by the assistant professor of Szent István University, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Plant Protection Institute.


Prospects of development in Hungarian walnut growing
(Dr. Péter Szentiványi)
Delaying the change of traditional landraces in walnut orchards planted for fifty years may fix a long-term disadvantage in the international market with fierce competition. This is why it is worth having an overview of the wide prospects of Hungarian breeding.

Assessing the market value of walnut varieties bred in Hungary
(Dr. Géza Bujdosó, Dr. Péter Szentiványi )
The authors wish to place the Hungarian walnut varieties among the ones bred in the neighbouring countries (Ukraine, Slovenia and Germany). The published test results cover the characteristics determining the major value of a variety as a commodity.

With all kinds of good nuts collected in my “sack”: walnut, chestnut, hazelnut. Interview
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We talked with the rightly acknowledged breeder of nuts about the past and present of walnut, chestnut and hazelnut breeding, the achievements up to now and the future challenges.

Hungarian chestnut growing
(Dr. Péter Szentiványi )
The first part of the article describes the achievements of our sweet chestnut growing. It is followed by discussing the question how growers and breeders can and should meet the challenges of the new consumer demand, such as candied, preserved and chocolate chestnuts and the pest problems (chestnut blight).

Hungarian hazelnut growing
(Dr. Péter Szentiványi )
The article gives an overview of the past decades’ variety trials and qualifications, their contribution to our hazelnut growing.

Frost sensitivity of almond varieties
(Dr. László Szalay)
The article lets us have an insight into the trials of Budapest Corvinus University, Department of Pomology. The experiments carried out in climate chambers in the past few years studied the frost resistance of flower buds on various almond varieties.


Experience in training slender spindle trees of peaches and pears
(Dr. Gergely Simon, László Komma, Dr. Béla Timon)
Crown form and training system highly influence the quality and quantity of the produced fruits and by that they are a key factor determining the profitability indices of a particular orchard. This is why the authors summarise the main characteristics of creating the shape of the crown. Furthermore, they share their experience with readers obtained during the forming of the crown in a peach and a pear experimental orchard.

Peaches – science and practice
(Dr. László Szalay)
The VII International Peach Symposium organised by the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) was held in Lleida, Spain in June 2009. Now the author wishes to report on the sessions focusing on the scientific results that can be successfully used in the practice as well.

White flesh nectarines
(Dr. László Szalay, Orsolya Takács, Dr. Béla Timon)
Widening the choice of varieties may help solving sales problems by placing, in addition to the conventional hairy varieties, nectarines with smooth skin as well on the market. New foreign nectarine varieties have been studied for a long time in the Variety Collection of Budapest Corvinus University at Soroksár. Three varieties with white flesh (Snow Queen, Super Queen, Olimpio) are described together with the experience gained from their production are published in the article as a kind of recommendation for widening the choice of varieties grown in Hungary.

Turkey, the leader in global apricot growing
(Réka Debreceni, Dr. László Szalay )
Today Turkey is on the top of list of countries growing apricots. This place corresponds to an annual production of over half million tons and almost 80 % of the global dried apricot production. The article wishes to present the country’s interesting variety choice uncommon for us.

Neither plum nor apricot
(Dr. Szilvia Kovács, Emese Gengeliczki)
The article informs on the interspecific hybrids i.e. plumcots deriving from the crossing of plums and apricots. Among them, readers may get acquainted with the experience of growing the varieties Dapple Dandy, Flavor Grenade and Flavor King.

Chile’ cherry growing in connection with a study-tour
(Dr. István Gonda)
Get acquainted with the practice of growing and processing sweet cherries in Chile, the demanding crop management programme and the way they apply it. This allows the Chilean growers to move from the nil-position to the lead of the world.

The beneficial effect of eating sour-cherries to human health
(Gitta Ficzek, Dr. Magdolna Tóth)
The authors publish the results of their several-year-long trials with various Hungarian sour cherry varieties and variety candidates. The objective of the research was to optimize the harvesting time based on antioxidant compounds, taking into account the needs of the processing industry and the use of biologically rich compounds.


Current state and prospects of the apple sector in the light farm management data
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The article presents the situation of the Hungarian and international apple growing and current trends in the market of fresh fruit and for processing. Last but not least, it reveals the future prospects of the apple sector by analysing the Hungarian cost relations and sales prices.

Resistant apple varieties in the National List
(Zsolt Szani, Dr. Tibor Szabó)
In December 2009, resistant apple varieties were included in the national list. Their growing has importance both in terms of the environmentally friendly and successful growing. The majority of the varieties are recommended for both fresh market and processing. They were bred in Germany by crossing different species and varieties. The most important characteristics are described in the article.

Establishing up-to-date pear orchards
(Tamás Szentpéteri)
With the changing consumer demands and the increasing production costs, it is necessary to modify the management of pear orchards. The article wishes to contribute to the topic, by presenting issues such as rootstock use, new trends in breeding and crop management.


Fruit nursery pests
(Dr. Klára Véghelyi)
Have an overview of the pests imposing risks to fruit nursery production (nematodes, insects, mites and vertebrates), the mode of causing damage and the methods to control them.

The causes of sudden apricot death, apoplexy
(Dr. Zsuzsa Rozsnyay)
We wish to assist all the old and new apricot growers who make efforts to recognize the reasons of sudden death of trees in their apricot orchards and to prevent that it happen.

Looking back to pest management in 2008-2009. Fruit crops
(Miklós Tóth)
The author from the Central Agricultural Office, Directorate for Plant Protection and Soil Conservation discusses the occurrence of the major pests and diseases of apples, sweet and sour cherries, peaches and apricots, as well as the damages caused by them in the past season.

The critical points of apple protection
(Ákos Forrai)
This is Syngenta Kft.’s offer for apple scab.

Minimising moth damage in apple orchards in a cost-efficient way
(István Ujvári)
The core of apple pest management is codling moth control. Successful chemical control against it can be achieved only by targeted treatments with proper timing. However, it may imply even 10-18 insecticide treatments annually that, in addition to enormous costs, raise the issue of risks by pesticide residues. Having all these in mind, the article describes mating disruption with pheromones as a prospective method available also in Hungary since 2007, its mode of action and the necessary appliances. Finally, as a novelty of the year, the author presents a new product with new mode of action, containing Cydia pomonella granulosis virus. This helps considerably reduce the number of insecticide treatments and increase the efficacy of controlling codling moth.

Quince pest management
(Szilvia Németh, Zoltán Bodor, Péter Bodor)
In Hungary, quince is still mainly a crop of small gardens; it does not have a district dedicated to its growing. However, it is a more and more demanded raw material in the fruit processing industry with a safe market. It can improve the diversity of the supply and consumption of fibrous fruit juice. We wish to increase the knowledge of growers in pest management by presenting the major pests and diseases and the methods to control them, hoping that all these will give stimulus to establishing quince orchards.

DuPont™ Coragen® – 2009 (x)
(István Rácz)
DuPont Hungary Kft. recommends its new insecticide Coragen (rynaxypyr) placed on the market in spring 2009 for fruit and vegetable growers.

Increasing damages by goat moth
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt)
Goat moth is a potential pest of any deciduous trees, the species can be found in all the top-fruit orchards. The damage is hidden, only an excretion mass at the bottom of the trunk or gum ooze conspicuous on the trunk of the tree refer to it. The article lets us have an insight into trials carried out to reveal the major fruit species goat moth affects in particular. Furthermore, the study addressed questions whether the species was rather a secondary pest or growers need to take into account them even in well-kept orchards.

Brief information about almond seed wasp
(Ákos Varga)
Almond seed wasp has become a major pest of almonds since its appearance in several countries. Now the author provides an overview of the spread, morphological description, damage and biology of the pest. In addition, the causes of the differences among the particular almond varieties in their susceptibility to the pest are also outlined.

The Pheromone Group of the International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals (IOBC) Report
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt)
The joint conference of the West Palearctic (WPRS) and East Palearctic (EPRS) Working Groups of the International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals (IOBC) was organised in Budapest between 15 and 20 November.

Press release about Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009.
(Hungarian Crop Protection Association)
This communication of the Hungarian Crop Protection Association was published about the new registration scheme of pesticides.


Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh
This is a brief review of interesting articles published in foreign technical journals.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month readers may get acquainted with the life and work of Charles Darwin among the series about the great personalities of our agricultural history.

Wishing to harvest pears …
(Zoltán Molnár)

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)