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Agroforum Extra 43.

Preface
(Dr. László Szalay)

What season did we have in 2011?
(József Szabó)
The author from the FruitVeB Hungarian Interprofessional Organization for Fruit and Vegetables is summarising the experiences of year 2011. He gives the analysis of weather conditions (frost and drought), fruit growing potential, prices, the eventual changes of cropping structure, and finally concludes the situation of the particular fruit species.

Past, present and future prospects of the apple sector
(Dr. István Gonda, Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The authors publish their situation analysis of the apple sector based on the key factors (strength and weakness), followed by outlining the possible ways out and the solution options.

Recommending books. István Gonda, Imre Fülep: Apple management programme
(Dr. József Nyéki)
The authors are well known among apple growers. Their book is a unique undertaking that aims to present the situation and changes taken place in the apple management programme in details.

The role of the National Fruit Cadastre in Hungarian fruit growing
(Dr. Erzsébet Kállay, Győző Szenci)
Various factors are taking part in the decision-making for establishment of orchards in practice. Among them, the article describes the most characteristic ones, presenting the National Fruit Cadastre, its history and use.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular review of interesting articles published in foreign journals.

Hungarian experience about Czech peach varieties
(Zsolt Szani)
Peach is one of the fruit species most intensively involved in breeding programmes all over the world. The number of varieties highly increases year by year. At the same time Hungarian growers need to face the problem of lacking information and national experience about new varieties. The article tries to fill this gap by presenting the peach varieties of the Czech Republic not far away from Hungary in space and in various aspects.

The cost-benefit relations of cherry growing in connection with seasonal effects
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The paper publishes the cost-benefit analysis, prepared for three different kinds of seasons, of a cherry orchard being in good conditions, very well managed but under conventional training system.

What should we know about foliar fertilizers? (x)
(Dr. Erik Czinege)
Yara Hungária offers its foliar fertilizer alphabet.

Characteristics of disease resistant sour-cherry hybrids
(Sándor Szügyi, Dr. Zsuzsanna Rozsnyay, Dr. János Apostol)
One of the goals of the Research Institute for Fruitgrowing and Ornamentals is to breed varieties for expressing tolerance to diseases as widely as possible. This is why it is an important aspect of sour-cherry experiments that the hybrids produced by crossing, in addition to desirable growing and marketing traits, possess due tolerance to one of the most dangerous disease of sour-cherry trees, brown rot of stone fruits (Monilinia laxa).

The role and importance of plum gene bank: a genetic and cultural source
(Dr. Dezső Surányi)
Fruit Research Institute of Cegléd possesses the most important plum gene bank in Hungary. Researchers have collected various botanical species, their subspecies, varieties, clones as plums do not consist of a single species. The article presents the importance of this collection.

The present and future of the mechanical harvesting in stone fruits (sour-cherries, plums)
(Dr. Domokos Andor)
The big boom in the past 10 years for establishing plantations, the turning to bearing of the new plantations, the depreciation the old harvesting machines, the available government subsidy and the drastic increase in the costs of manual harvesting have renewed the demand for harvesters. In addition to presenting the machines commonly used in Hungarian stone fruit growing, the article also indicates the European trends in the development of machinery.

White currants
(Dr. Szilvia Kovács)
The author gives an overview of the production value of white currant varieties.

Soft fruit growing – Is there a light at the end of the tunnel? Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We were talking with the professor emeritus of the Department of Fruit Sciences of Budapest Corvinus University, dr. János Papp. He is an internationally acknowledged expert of integrated fruit growing, nutrient management and soft fruit, editor of various textbooks on soft fruits about the current situation of soft fruits, their key problems and the possibilities of improving the competitive ability of growers.

Delaying the flowering of fruit trees
(Dr. László Szalay)
Temperatures below zero unfortunately frequently occur in Hungary during the flowering of fruit trees that may severely affect flower organs and cause yield losses. Therefore, in order to avoid frost damages it is a benefit if our fruit trees blossom as late as possible, preferably at a time when we already do not need to be afraid that temperature falls dawn below the critical level at dawn. In the present paper we summarise the methods suitable for achieving such delayed flowering.

New trellis systems in fruit orchards
(Tamás Szentpéteri)
The new techniques used in the past decades and the occurrence of weather extremities require to continuously develop the trellis systems of fruit orchards. More and more trellis systems equal to the Western European standards have been installed also in Hungary in the past ten years. The article gives an account of the experience of the installation.

With mating disruption without pesticide residues and moth damage (x)
(Gyula László)
ISOMATE®-ISONET® pheromones for mating disruption of fruit and grape moths.

Methods of forecasting the major pests of pome fruits (1)
(Annamária Tüh)
Plant pests cannot be efficiently controlled without using various forecasting methods. Now you may get to know the tools that can be applied against the major pathogens causing significant economic damages to pome fruit production. The element of the pest management programme influencing pest risk situations and economic thresholds are also dealt with.

Controlling fungal diseases in apples (x)
BASF recommends its fungicides for apple growers in 2012.

Preface to the book by Dr. Klára Véghelyi: “The teething troubles of fruit trees “
(Dr. Endre Probocskai)
This small book gives a comprehensive discussion of pest and disease control in nurseries. Plant protection is a decisive element of successful growing. The author describes the various kinds of pests and diseases presenting risks to nurseries and fruit production.

Attention! Roesleria pallida may come also with nursery material!
(Dr. Klára Véghelyi)
Roesleria pallida
is a fungus with only sporadic occurrence in Hungarian nurseries. However, the pathogen can be spread from certain infected mother stocks and graft nurseries to orchards throughout the country. As this fungus can only be controlled by preventing the introduction, we believe it is important to draw the attention to its morphology, biology, the provoked symptoms, host-range and the risks of importing nursery material.

Disease control of stone fruits (x)
BASF recommends its programme to manage stone fruit diseases.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past: Sándor Schrikker (1892-1973)
This month readers may get acquainted with the life and work of Sándor Schrikker in the frame of our series presenting the great persons contributing to agricultural development in Hungary.

DuPont Coragen® (x)
DuPont draws the attention of apple growers to its insecticide of novel mode of action.

Changing management of pests in orchards and vineyards
(Dr. Béla Pénzes)
The use of several groups of active substances has been significantly reduced recently. Furthermore, new, environmentally friendly pest management techniques have been introduced, by which the former challenges of pest management practice have also changed. Apart from a few exceptions, in our days we are generally not facing the appearance of new pests but that the pest species known for a long time without any economic importance are gaining ground again. The article well demonstrates this situation.

Voliam Targo – With double protection against the most dangerous sucking and chewing pests! (x)
(Éva Nádudvari, Zoltán Lucza, Ákos Forrai)
Get to know the new product of Syngenta with acaricide and insecticide effects to be released in 2012.

The importance of synthetic baits in trapping tephritid fruit flies (Rhagoletis)
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt)
When developing traps for monitoring the occurrence and flight of insect pests, it is important to be very careful to allow the assessment of the population densities of particular species by these tools. The situation with colour traps or colour traps baited with sexual attractants is much more complicated because in that case the goal is to model the environmental requirements of the particular insects as good as possible. The author publishes the observations made for developing traps to be used for the detection and monitoring the flight activity of tephritid fruit flies affecting cherries, sour-cherries and walnuts.

Efficient control of lepidopteran pests without pesticide residues: Madex®, Dipel®, Dipel® ES, Trichoplus® (x)
(Gyula László)
Biocont Hungary Kft. provides a brief overview of its products that are the basic elements of an efficient control of lepidoteran pests without pesticide residues.

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)