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Agroforum Extra 46.

The best in life
(Dr. László Bódis)

PLANT PROTECTION AND NUTRIENT SUPPLY

What challenges to prepare for in 2012?
(Ms Terézia Dula)
Based on the occurrences of the past two years, the author takes into account the risks imposed by pests and diseases in vineyards in 2012.

Enervin®: A revolutionary new product to control grapevine downy mildew (x)
BASF recommends growers its new products to control downy mildew in vineyards.

Phytoplasma diseases causing serious damages to grapes
(Ibolya Ember, Zoltán Ács, Dr. Mária Kölber)
Phytoplasma diseases summarised under the term “grapevine yellows” provoke serious and still increasing losses to vine growing all over the world. Phytoplasmas are bacteria without cell walls that cannot be cultured on growing media and are living in the vascular tissues of plants. The paper deals with symptoms, general characteristics, history and classification of phytoplasmas. Furthermore, the authors give an overview of phytoplasmas occurring on grapes in Europe, and last but not least, of the possible means of their control.

The most devastating grapevine yellows: Flavescence dorée
(Zsuzsanna Dancsházy, Éva Kriston)
Flavescence dorée phytoplasma is a dangerous quarantine disease of grapevine that has not been observed in Hungary yet. If the vector of the disease is not controlled, 80-100 % of the vines can become infected, and the majority of them can die if the varieties are susceptible. This is why we believe it is worth taking an overview of the means of dispersal, geographical distribution, symptoms, as well as of the possibilities of prevention and control of the disease.

Black rot of grape
(Ms Terézia Dula)
The author gives a detailed discussion of the disease, originating in North America. It has recently presented an increasing threat and a big challenge to vine growing. The article describes the characteristic symptoms of black rot of grape, life cycle of the pathogen, the circumstances of infection and the options for the control of the disease.

Double effect against Botrytis and Monilinia – Switch® (x)
This is Syngenta’s recommendation for fruit and grape growers to control grey mould and monilinia

Is it grapevine replant disease or a disease of roots?
(Dr. Klára Véghelyi, Dr. Gábor Zanathy)
The occurrence of replant disease has been known in grapevine growing practice for a long time, though it has not been confirmed by scientific evidences in replanted vineyards and grapevine nurseries managed with short rotation. By now it has been clarified that it is a complex issue, provoked by various reasons that may occur both separately and alone. The article gives a detailed discussion of the topic.

Major pests of grapes in 2011 and their foreseen damages in 2012
(Adrienne Gyulai Garai)
In addition to the common grapevine pests (willow beauty larvae, scale insects, mites and grape moths), under conditions of scarce rainfalls and high temperatures, pests, having emerged in the past few years, may build up higher population densities (planthoppers and leafhoppers, wasps, thrips and Harlequin ladybird). The author warns readers that they can cause significant damages if no control is applied.

Mites in ecological grapevine growing
(Dr. Krisztina Németh)
The article gives a detailed discussion of mite pests in grapes and outlines the reasons of population increases of phytophagous mite species, the options for controlling them, including the deliberate introduction of predatory mites, as well as the most frequently occurring predatory mites in Hungarian vineyards.

The most important weeds in vineyards, options to get rid of them and chemical control
(László Szentey)
The article outlines the options for mechanical and chemical controls from the time prior to planting the vineyard, through the young plantation (0-3 years) to vineyards of over 4 years.

A new quality in plant conditioning: ALGINURE® (x)
(Gyula László)
The product suitable for developing induced resistance in plants is recommended by Biocont.

The aspects of nutrient supply for grapevine
(Dr. Anna Csikász Krizsics, László Bene )
Briefly summarising the elements of nutrient supply, the authors wish to refer to the complicated relations and complex systems, where human intervention may provoke beneficial and adverse effects.

This is the way to supply nutrients for grapes in spring (x)
(Dr. Erik Czinege)
Yara recommends its products for the optimum nutrient supply of grapes.

GROWRS’ EXPERIENCE

Situational report from vineyards – 2011 1/2012
(János Czink, Attila Hollósy, Diána Mészáros Pólya, Dániel Mukli, Róbert Rakusz, László Somogyi)
As we did it in the previous years, this time we have also asked the professionals working in the practice about their experience obtained last year in growing and protecting grapes from pests. We encouraged them to share their observations and experience about the characteristics of the season 2011, the occurrence of pests and diseases, as well as about their control.

DuPont management programme was a pleasant surprise (x)
(A. Gy.)
This is DuPont’s pest management programme in vineyards.

GRAPEVINE VARIETIES

The role and importance of ‘Olaszrizling’ (‘Welschriesling’) in our days
(Dr. János Májer)
The article, based on the lecture delivered at the exhibition “Vine growing and Winemaking”, gives an account of the technological and site conditions of successfully growing the white grape variety with the largest area in Hungary, i.e. ‘Olaszrizling’ (‘Welschriesling’). Furthermore, the author reveals the prospects of this variety in the field of wine marketing.

Forgotten old varieties?! – A table grape for private gardens
(János Werner)
The aim of the article is to draw the attention – without striving for completeness – to such table grape varieties bred in Hungary in older times that, with their quality, can be recommended primarily for private gardens even today. Furthermore, the author wishes to support existing values, of course, not underestimating the quality of newly bred varieties.

Good to know about Syrah
(Szabolcs Villangó)
Syrah is the sixth most widely grown and at the same time, one of the most popular varieties in the world. The article presents, in addition to the origin, ampelographic characteristics and production values, also the bouquet features of its wine and the most popular production sites.

Wild grape or let’s try to save that can be saved
(Péter Bodor et al.)
Wild grape is a creeping plant of deciduous forests in mountains of medium height and riparian plant associations. It is our native, protected plant that has been more and more threatened by extinction since the beginning of the 20th century. The present article wishes to give an overview of the distribution of the species, morphology, the circumstances of becoming an endangered species and the options for its protection.

Who are the parents? – The origin of grapevine varieties in the light of genetic research
(Gizella Györffy Jahnke et al.)
Morphological traits are modified to a bigger or smaller extent by environmental effects. Therefore they can be less used for determining the genetic distance of species and varieties. At the same time, the different types of the molecular markers used during the past thirty years do not, or only to a minimal extent depend on the environmental effects, and thus give a more reliable method for such determinations. The authors publish the results of their studies with microsatellite (SSR) analysis, searching for the parent-progeny relation of various grapevine varieties.

PORTRAIT

“Wine is a wonder as a human being himself”. Talk with Péter Vida
(Dr. László Bódis)
Our correspondent talked with the Winemaker of the Year, Péter Vida.

SEASONAL EFFECTS

Winter frosts, frost damages
(Dr. Edit Hajdu)
The frosty weather in winter 2011/2012 has been included in the list of years never-to-forget because of the severe damages by frosts. This winter the extremely cold, even frosty air-current arrived with abundant snow at the Carpathian basin, causing big losses. In connection with this, the author takes into account the characteristics of the frosts of the last winter, in general, the causes of frost damages, as well as the procedure and method of assessing them.

2011: A year of stresses and high wine quality
(János Werner, Dr. Péter Teszlák, dr. Anna Csikász Krizsics)
The authors evaluate year 2011, considering meteorological, phonological, physiological and plant protection conditions from the point of view of vine growing. They share their conclusions with readers in order to assist vine growers and winemakers in preparing for the forthcoming season.

Studying Mediterranean seasons in Tokaj wine region
(István Leskó, Dr. Annamária Leskó)
The authors, having carried out meteorological and grapevine phonological observations since 1988, paid particular attention to the so-called Mediterranean seasons. The present article was inspired by their experience in 2011, and the authors evaluate the events of two seasons (2000 and 2011) from the point of view of plant protection and phenology. Finally the conclusions are drawn.

A recurring topic – drought stress in vineyards
(Dr. Nárcisz Mikóczy)
When, after a rainy season, we believe that it is unnecessary to deal with drought damage, we always encounter a droughty year. This is why, when preparing for this year, we think it is worthwhile to get acquainted with a study and its results where the effects of drought damage, provoked by the extreme distribution of temperature and rainfall, to crop yields and grape juice quality were observed and measured.

MACHINES

New tractors from Antonio Carraro (x)
(dgy)
Have a look at the novelties produced by one of the most sought after tractor trademarks for orchards and vineyards!

EVENTS

Ecological vine growers at Normafa. Report
(Dr. Gábor Zanathy)
Ecological growers visited the famous tourist spot in Budapest, indicated in the title, not for physical but for intellectual refreshment, because the West-Hungarian University, Biokontroll Hungary Nonprofit Kft. and Biocont Hungary Kft. invited them for training. The interested could listen to altogether 25 foreign and Hungarian speakers at the two-day event. It would have been worthy to present a detailed description of all the lectures and presentation, however, the constraints of the journal did not allow this. Therefore – without striving for completeness – the article gives an account only of certain interesting topics and news.

XIIth Symposium on Vine-growing and Winemaking. Report
(Dr. György Demes)
It was already the 12th time BASF organised a conference on grapes and wine in Herceghalom on 16 February 2012. On the event, the expert of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment & Water Management and the owner of a thriving Austrian winery revealed the secret of successful winemaking. Furthermore, the results achieved by BASF in grapevine protection and the conclusions of pest management in vineyards in 2011 were also dealt with. Finally, the prospects for 2012 were also outlined.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular review of interesting articles published in foreign journals.

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)