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Agroforum Extra 48.

Team work
(Dr. László Szalay)

POME FRUITS

The relation of ecological environment and the competitiveness of Hungarian apple growing (Dr. István Gonda, Imre Fülep)
Hungarian fruit growing is in a favourable position in various aspects due to its geographical position. However, the adverse, frequently extreme weather conditions more and more need to be taken into consideration as well. The article discusses all these for apples, comparing the ecological potentials of Hungary with those of the European countries possessing highly developed apple growing.

A colour scale for determining the ripening stage, suitable for storing, of new Hungarian resistant apple varieties
(Dr. Gitta Ficzek, Dr. Magdolna Tóth)
The ground colour of fruits, continuously changing during ripening, is one of the most suitable parameters for determining the ripening stage of apples. In connection with this, the authors from the Budapest Corvinus University, Department of Pomology publish the results of their related studies. They worked out a method for determining the optimal ripening stage of new Hungarian resistant apple varieties, based on the ground colour of the fruits, using colour co-ordinates and colour scale.

Book review. Precision apple management programme. Edited by: Dr. István Gonda
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The book that can be used as a manual, discusses the situation of the apple management programme and its changes.

Yield regulation in apple orchards
(Tamás Szentpéteri)
Regular cropping and the best fruit quality possible cannot be achieved in the up-to-date apple orchards without an appropriate yield regulation. The article deals with a key element of the comprehensive management programme, i.e. chemical fruit thinning. The author presents the most important active substances commonly used throughout Europe and the ones only at experimental stage, as well as the main aspects to be considered during their use.

Bellis® – to keep apples healthy during storage (x)
(Attila Najat)
This is the fungicide offered by BASF to control the storage diseases of apples.

Pear gene bank in Keszthely
(Dr. Gitta Kocsis Molnár)
The article presents the pear gene bank located in Keszthely, describes the role and importance of the variety collection of the gene bank. The author gives an account of various years’ studies conducted in the gene bank in connection with frost tolerance, ripening time, open pollination and fruits.

STONE FRUITS

Changes in using peach varieties
(Dr. László Szalay, Dr. Béla Timon, Imre Gergő Gyökös)
The use of peach varieties is in a continuous modification due to the changes in demands by consumers (traders) and the processing industry and also driven by the new tastes. The authors give an account of such trends, taking production data into consideration.

Book review. Intensive training systems for growing cherries in Hungary and the world over. Edited by: Dr. István Gonda
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The book deals with the training systems applied in the leading European cherry growing country and the biggest and successful cherry growing countries of the southern hemisphere. The author covers the new and interesting issues of rootstocks, scions, tree spacing, crown form and crop management, giving inspirations and ideas to the improvement of Hungarian cherry growing.

Slender spindle and its enhanced version for peach growing
(Dr. Béla Timon, Dr. László Szalay, Imre Gergő Gyökös)
In the 1970s, the demand rose for establishing more intensive stone fruit orchards, among them of peaches that come to bearing earlier. The authors present one of the options, i.e. slender spindle, the criteria of establishing the orchard and training of the trees. They also describe the most recent type of this system, string spindle.

Light-coloured cherries
(Dr. Zsuzsanna Békefi, Dr. László Szalay)
The article shows readers around the world of light-coloured, yellow or pink on a yellow ground colour cherries, not common in our country. You may get acquainted with the challenges of breeding light-coloured cherries. Furthermore, recommendations are given on the critical points of introducing new varieties in growing, such as rootstock-scion compatibility.

NUTS

Why don’t we plant self-pollinating almond trees?
(István Skola)
Almond is considered a typical cross-pollinated fruit crop involving several problems. Its winter frost tolerance is even poorer than of apricot, trees frequently suffer from late spring frosts and fruit- set takes place with difficulties. However, we may find several international achievements in breeding that may influence our ideas about the crop. The article provides an overview of these breeding trends, objectives and the rich choice of varieties released by certain foreign breeding sites.

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT

Soil management to base successful stone fruit growing
(Gabriella Szabó Kele)
The article focuses on the guidelines of basic fertilizer application prior to planting stone fruit crops. You can read about the procedure of assessing soil conditions of the land prior to planting and the determining of soil requirements of stone fruits. The most important criteria of nutrient supply before planting are also presented.

The effect of fertilizer application on the nutrient supply, yields and stress tolerance of peach, sour cherry and apricot trees
(Dr. Endre Szűcs)
There are tables in the manuals and textbooks for planning nutrient supply, indicating optimum values of soil and leaf analysis. However, it is seldom mentioned that such values are set as a result of long-term experiments and painstaking research work is behind the table data. The article provides an insight into the results of such research in certain stone fruit species.

PROTECTING ORCHARDS

Replanting problems in orchards
(Dr. Gábor Jenser, Dr. Károly Magyar, Dr. Klára Véghelyi)
After pulling out the old orchards, growers frequently decide on replanting, even if they are aware of the foreseen poorer growth and productivity of the new fruit orchard. What is behind the decreased growth caused by soil-sickness, what is it caused by, what extent can it reach and at all, what can we do against it? In addition to answering these questions, the authors discuss the earlier and most recent results obtained in the topic, in all cases considering practical aspects as well.

Book review. Technologies and economic considerations of protecting orchards against frost and ice damage
The author of this book summarises scientific and technical information available in the Hungarian and foreign literature from the most important fruit growing countries. The practical experience of the Hungarian fruit growing companies leading in frost and ice protection is also mentioned. The results of the Hungarian research work in the recent protection techniques are also discussed.

Techniques suitable for protection against spring frost damage in fruit growing
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The importance of protection against spring frost damage has significantly increased due to the incidents in the past few years. This is why we believe it is worth presenting the techniques available at the moment for frost protection, outlining the most important knowledge and practical experience on this topic and briefly summarising the main benefits and drawbacks, dealing also with economic considerations.

Finally, NEEM AZAL® T/S is available also in our country (x)
(Gyula László)
Biocont Hungary Kft. recommends fruit growers the unique plant extract for using in the control of insect pests.

The role of predatory mites established in Hungarian apple orchard in environmentally friendly plant protection
(Zsuzsanna Hajdú)
The article lets readers have an insight into the mite research work done at the Department of Entomology, Budapest Corvinus University. The author focuses on the environmentally friendly options for controlling populations of phytophagous mites affecting apples. She draws the attention to the role of predatory mites as useful elements of natural resources in the environmentally friendly protection of fruit orchards.

Fruit growing without pesticide residues: chemicals-free solutions from Biocont Kft. (x)
(Gyula László)
Get to know ISOMATE®-ISONET®, the pheromone for mating disruption and MADEX®, the insecticide containing granulosis virus.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Producer organisations (TÉSZ) in Hungarian fruit and vegetable production
(Zoltán Fodor)
The article compares the Hungarian system with the operation of the European producer organisations in fruit and vegetable production. The author considers the conditions of the Hungarian organisations from various aspects and outlines the internal and external problems.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
This is the regular review of interesting articles published in foreign journals.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. József Unghváry (1864-1933)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month readers may get acquainted with the life and work of József Unghváry in the frame of our series presenting the great persons contributing to agricultural development in Hungary

Written anno…
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)