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Agroforum Extra 51.

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(Dr. Gábor Zanathy)

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

The past, present and future of supporting the structural changes in vineyards
(Péter Bodnár)
The author from the Directorate for Market Supports and External Trade Measures of the Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (MVH) presents the most important changes taken place during the past years in the scheme of supporting the structural changes in vineyards.

The new act on wine-growing communities
(Dr. Diána Sidlovits, Dr. Zoltán Kator)
The new act on wine-growing communities, having been in force since 1 January 2013, contains new solutions that determine and change the operation of the wine-growing organisation, the scheme of the grapevine and wine sector and the principles of protecting the origin of wines, recently developed according to the wine market reform in the European Union. In connection with this, the authors deal with the most important changes and their consequences affecting the members and the organisation of wine-growing communities.

PLANT PROTECTION, FERTILIZER APPLICATION

The characteristics and experiences of the season in 2012 in Eger wine region
What season could we expect for 2013?
(Terézia Dula)
A year has passed in vineyards, so it is time to analyse and sum up experiences, at the same time, to look forward. The two papers offer an excellent opportunity for all these. The author undertakes to give a detailed discussion of the seemingly eventless year 2012, reviewing the development and growth of grapes, weather conditions and diseases and experience in vineyard protection. Based on the previous year’s events, the article takes into account the risks imposed by epidemic diseases and pests foreseen for 2013.

“Higher priority to grapes”. Report
(Dr. György Demes)
Gábor Krasznai, the head of BASF’s Agro Division opened the BASF XIIIth Symposium on Vine-growing and Winemaking, with the motto indicated in the title, on 14 February 2013. The presentations delivered on the event, as well as the new products and management programmes introduced in the meeting followed year by year with high interest, provide new, up-to-date information for growers and help them in everyday work and making important decisions.

Alternative products for ecological and integrated grapevine protection (x)
(Gyula László)
Get to know the ecological grapevine management programme having been developed since 2007 by Biocont Hungary Kft. and currently used even by the leading wineries.

The appearance and importance of new challenges (pests, climatic phenomena) in Hungary
(Dr. József Mikulás)
A vineyard requires a real master who frequently visits his crop. This refers to every year, even to that when he gets off grapevine protection with little efforts in spraying (e.g. in 2012) because there was not much rain in the season. However, in spite of the low volumes of rainfall, there were some problems in grapevine protection (such as certain fungal diseases and pests and sunburnt among climatic factors). The author gives an account thereof.

Excellent berry protection! Dynali (x)
(Éva Nádudvari, Zoltán Varga)
Get to know Syngenta’s fungicide Dynali (cyflufenamid + difenoconazole).

The past and present of grapevine powdery mildew
(Dr. György Sárospataki)
This article summarises the history of grapevine powdery mildew fungus, the knowledge about its biology and behaviour, as well as the safe way of grape protection to avoid epidemics frequently threatening the crop.

Syngenta Wine Championship and the persons awarded there. Report
(Dr. György Demes)
This was the twelfth time when a great number of excellent wines were presented at the Syngenta National Wine Championship from all wine regions of the country. The Quadris-prize, intended for the best ones wines was awarded to Béres Tokaji Aszú 6 Puttonyos, vintage 2007 from Béres Wine Estate, Cabernet Franc, vintage 2011 from Schieber Winery and ‘Aranymetszés’ (“Golden ratio”) Balatoni Olaszrizling (welshriesling), vintage 2009 from Varga Winery. In addition to them, seven wines have received great gold, 74 gold, 161 silver and 109 bronze medals, while 18 growers were awarded with diplomas. At the same time, the presentations delivered during the technical meeting before the prize-giving ceremony provided a good opportunity for expanding knowledge and exchanging experience.

Symptoms that can be mixed up on grapes
(Dr. Klára Véghelyi)
A single pathogen may provoke different kinds of symptoms, but a living organism, abiotic environmental effect, and misuse of chemicals can cause similar symptoms likely to be mixed up. Sometimes we unnecessarily spray due to a wrong diagnosis while other times we miss a treatment that would be important to carry out, or pull out a vine showing symptoms resembling to a virus disease. In order to avoid all these, the author presents the symptoms, occurring on grapes, which can be mixed up with certain pests and diseases.

An online forecasting system for grapevine protection from BASF: experience and plans (x)
(Attila Najat)
The forecasting system of BASF for grapevine protection has been enlarged in 2013 to cover further wine regions. It has been upgraded with new, user-friendly services for all those vine-growers and plant protection professionals who wish to base their work on high quality information in this season, too.

Rupestris stem pitting-associated virus – is it a problem not only for rootstock growers?
(Dr. Rita Lózsa, Dr. György Dénes Bisztray)
Among grapevine viruses, Rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV), one of the viruses being in the background of stem pitting syndrome, is perhaps the most common virus of grapes and spread all over the world. In spite of this, we have very little knowledge of its pathology and economic importance. This is why we believe it is worth reviewing the range of diseases related to GRSPaV, the effect of infection by GRSPaV on grapes and the possibilities of producing GRSPaV-free plants.

Damage by grapevine white rot (Coniella diplodiella) on scions used at bench grafting
(Mónika Márkus, Ágnes Kun)
The main pillars of successful change of varieties are a skilled professional, careful canopy management and plant protection necessary for the lignifications of shoots, as well as healthy planting material. The latter is composed of a well-managed, healthy vine at appropriate age, waiting for re-grafting and a woody scion spur, collected and stored as required. The authors give a detailed discussion of the latter component and write about a disease, grapevine white rot. It was observed in the grafting season of 2012, causing storage problems related to the quality of the planting material.

Grapevine protection – 2013. Plant Protection Meeting named after Szabolcs Makó. Report
(Zsuzsanna Györök)
VitiCOOP Kft., Syngenta and Boglár Plant Doctor Kft. jointly organised a meeting on plant protection in vineyards and orchards on 19 February 2013. The article gives an overview of the presentations delivered in the event.

Reliable and efficient products for good quality grapevine (x)
(A. Gy.)
Arguments supporting the grapevine protection solutions by DuPont from growers can be read under this heading.

The biology of grapevine moths and the alternatives of their control
(Dr. János Pál Tóth)
Among grape moths, European grapevine moth and vine moth cause damages in Hungarian vineyards. The importance of the two species has highly changed in the country over the times. The reason needs to be looked for in the climatic change. This is why we believe it is worth giving an overview of the differences and similarities in the biology of the two species, as well as of the options for their control from the point of view of natural enemies and biological control.

BAYER Grapevine symposium – 2013. Report
(Dr. György Demes)
This year Bayer CropScience organised its traditional grapevine symposium for the spring at Egri Korona Winery in Demjén on 26 February. A lot of vine-growers and winemakers, mainly from the surrounding area attended the event and were interested in the presentations delivered there. A summary thereof is given in the article.

Molybdenum and grapes
(Dr. Gábor Zanathy)
When searching for the composition of biostimulants and complex micronutrient compounds it may be conspicuous that these valuable products frequently contain molybdenum (Mo). The physiological effects of molybdenum on the human organism are well known: integrated in dental enamel, it decreases the risk of dental decay; the element takes role in the decomposition of alcohols and maintaining male fertility. However, why molybdenum is important for grapes? May the varieties with rigid, upright shoot system require it in larger quantities? The article answers these questions by showing readers around the role of this element for grapes.

Practice has proved it … Nutrient supply programme in grapes (x)
(Gábor Tóth)
Yara offers growers one of the widest ranges of products for the nutrient supply of grapes.

MYCORRHIZA

Intentional fungal infection in vineyards: mycorrhizal inoculation
(Dr. Anna Csikász Krizsics, Dr. Pál Kozma)
The authors present the prospects and constraints of using mycorrhizal inoculation in vineyards. They also discuss the experience and conclusions, the first results and the background of the mycorrhiza experiments established by the Research Institute of Viticulture and Oenology of Pécs University.

The experience of mycorrhizal inoculation at planting in Szigetszentmárton
(Ádám Donkó, Dr. Gábor Zanathy, Csaba Gál, Dr. Zsolt Erős-Honti)
You may have a look inside the results of an experiment whose objective was to study the performance of mycorrhizal inoculation in Kunság wine region. During the experiment, the authors evaluated the efficacy of the inoculation based on the shoot growth of treated and untreated vines and the colonisation data of the roots. They also carried out a cost-benefit analysis of performing mycorrhizal inoculation.

ORCHARDS AND VINEYARDS

Applying double Guyot system with modified trellis in Hungarian wine-grape growing
(Dr. György Lukácsy)
The choice of vine training methods applicable for medium-high vines under trellis system is not too rich. However, the range is further reducing if, in addition to select for varieties, we decide to use a training system of canes. Among them, the benefits and drawbacks, as well as the main characteristics of the umbrella and the Guyot systems are outlined. Now the experience and experimental results with the double Guyot system with modified trellis from vineyard practice are also published.

The importance of elevation
(Dr. Péter Teszlák)
This paper will surely rise interest and provide guidance about the relationship of elevation and grapevine biology (i.e. changes in the moisture content of leaves, polyphenol synthesis in the plant).

The role of fruit trees in the world heritage area of Tokaj wine region
(Dr. Zoltán Bihari)
Hungarian culture has been bound to Tokaj wine region by a thousand threads; not only historians but also people of natural sciences can find a treasure in this land. The rich pool of genes in grapevine plants and the colourful choice of the still existing landraces are also valuable. Unfortunately, this richness is decreasing. Loosing the available sources would be an irreplaceable loss, and the article draws the attention to that.

The effect of different modes of soil and plant cover on the nutrient supply of grapes and soils, soil moisture and vintage parameters in different seasons
(Dr. Péter Varga, Dr. János Májer, Csaba Németh)
The authors describe the effects of various soil and plant-covering techniques based on several years’ data on soil moisture and harvesting parameters for different years.

Ampelometry – A message on grape leaves
(Dr. Péter Bodor, Dr. András Lőrincz, Dr. György Dénes Bisztray)
This paper guides readers into the world of ampelometry, the science of metric characterisation of grapevine species and varieties. At the same time, the authors give an account of the factors making ampelometric description difficult.

GROWERS’ EXPERIENCE

Situation report from vineyards– 2012/2013
(János Czink, Attila Csiha, Attila Hollósy, Diána MészárosPólya, Róbert Rakusz, László Vukovich)
As we have done earlier, this year we have asked the professionals working in different wine-regions about their experience in the crop production and pest management programmes in grapes obtained last year. We encouraged our experts to share their observations and ideas with readers about the characteristics of the season in 2012, the onset of pests and diseases and the controls against them. We also asked them about the prospects foreseen for 2013 (e.g. based on the examination of buds and the overwintering of pests).

Talking with István Szepsy, the owner of Szepsy Winery and president of Mád Association for the Protection of Origin
(Dr. György Zsigrai)
We talked with István Szepsy, the president of Mád Association for the Protection of Origin in Mád Winery about certain fields of vine-growing as well as the prospects and practicalities related to Tokaj-Hegyalja wine-region.

MECHANISATION, MACHINES

Criteria of using sprayers
(Dr. György Dimitrievits)
The success of grapevine protection is highly determined by factors, such as the characteristics of the vineyard from the point of view of application technique, the sprayer used for treatments and the way it is operated. The article gives a detailed discussion of these criteria.

LOOKOUT

Tropical grapevine growing in Thailand for the production of “New Latitude Wines”
(Dr. Edit Hajdu)
Thanks to research and developmental work, new prospects have been opened by expanding the boundaries of grapevine growing in Thailand and making the country, located on the Indochina peninsula, a new land of classic wines in the world. This all means that in our days it is already possible to successfully grow grapes and make wines at latitudes 8-14° to the north of the Equator. The author shares her experience of visiting two big grapevine holdings in Thailand, their vineyards and the belonging catering sites.

Let’s be realistic and strive for the impossible!
(Dr. Norbert Somogyi)
The sentence indicated in the title or rather its French equivalent can be read on a big tank marking the starting point of a line for bottling apple and pear wines at a company in county Mayenne. It truly reflects the philosophy that has allowed the producer to achieve his dream during twenty years and appear on the market with almost unique and premium-quality products. The article gives an account how all this has been carried out.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
Certain articles published in foreign technical journals are reviewed here.

FROM THE HISTORY OF VITICULTURE

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. Károly Engelbrecht (1860-1903)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month readers may be acquainted with the life and work of Károly Engelbrecht in the frame of our series presenting the great persons contributing to agricultural development in Hungary

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)