The plant breeders, gardeners and plant protectors monthly magazine

Current issue

Recent special issue

Agroforum Extra 53.

Innovation
(Dr. László Szalay)

PROFESSIONAL POLICY

“Knowledge warehouse is endless”. Interview with Dr. Ferenc Apáti
(Dr. László Bódis)
It seems to be appropriate for this special issue, dedicated to fruit crops, to interview a professional that, in addition to dealing with theoretical problems as a university lecturer, day by day faces the challenges of practice, experiencing the consequences of his decisions as a grower.

Quality management systems in fruit growing
(Anita Ferencz)
The author gives an overview of the quality assurance systems available for use in vegetable and fruit growing.

ECONOMY

Economic aspects of irrigation in fruit growing
(Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
The article outlines the cost issues of the water-saving micro-irrigation technique in orchards in order to draw the conclusions for identifying the conditions under which the costs of irrigation investments return.

Economic consequences of cold storage in apple growing
(Viktor Szabó, Dr. Ferenc Apáti)
Cold storage is already a basic part of apple growing. It is essential for ensuring apple supply for 8-10 or even 12 months of the year according to buyers’ demand. This is why it is worth dealing with the main economic consequences and relationships of cold storage in a separate article.

Bellis® has tested and proved (x)
(Attila Tóth, Attila Najat)
Get to know the first fungicide from BASF to control post-harvest diseases.

VARIETIES

Supporting FruitVeB sectoral strategy with new home-bred apple varieties and variety candidates
(Dr. Magdolna Tóth)
Supporting the recently introduced sectoral strategy of the Hungarian Interprofessional Organisation for Fruit and Vegetable (FruitVeB), aiming at improving the competitive ability of Hungarian apple growing by cultivar traits much different from those of the competitors, the author lets us have an insight into the recent results of apple breeding programmes carried out at Budapest Corvinus University, Department of Pomology. She presents certain important quality data and possible uses of new Hungarian varieties included in the national list in 2011 and 2012.

Self-pollinating cherry varieties
(Dr. Zsuzsanna Békefi, Sándor Szügyi)
The authors look back to the release of the first self-pollinating cherry varieties, then present readers the most important traits of certain popular, self-pollinating varieties.

Let us consider which walnut variety to grow!
(Dr. Géza Bujdosó)
The most commonly grown varieties are standard ones deriving from landraces, while hybrids are less frequently used in Hungary. The article summarises the advantages and disadvantages of these recently bred Hungarian walnut varieties based on the studies conducted by the Research Institute for Fruit Growing and Ornamentals and Budapest Corvinus University, Department of Pomology.

CROP MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

Economic considerations of using planting material (whip, feathered tree) in apple growing
(Viktor Szabó)
In the past few years, more and more super-intensive orchards have been planted, also in Hungary, with feathered trees and hail netting installed, a system predominant in Italy or Germany over ten-fifteen years. However, the question often arises whether the costs of such capital-intensive investments return or not under Hungarian economic conditions. It is also questionable if it worth planting feathered trees instead of whips, if their much higher cost returns or not. The paper presents a calculation comparing the costs of planting whips and feathered trees in a simplified way but suitable for showing the magnitude of costs and the relationship of economic issues for decision-making.

Dimensioning trellis systems
(Dr. Zoltán Láng)
Trellis systems are important equipments of intensive orchards. Planning and dimensioning trellis systems are engineering jobs, therefore let us leave it to such professionals. However, there are certain principles of dimensioning that are worth knowing also for fruit growers.

Count us! (x)
(Péter Bodó)
Products offered by Belchim CRP Kft. for grapevine pest management.

Conclusions of apricot events organised in 2013
(Dr. László Szalay, Veronika Hajnal)
Several meetings focusing on apricots were held last year, indicating the importance of the crop in the fruit growing strategy. First, the particular events are outlined in chronological order, then the most important conclusions of the major issues addressed at these meetings are summarised.

PLANT PROTECTION

Plant protection problems of walnut varieties bred in Hungary for intensive growing
(Júlia Gara)
Several new, high-yielding Hungarian walnut varieties have been included in the national list. However, they seem to be more susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases than the three major Hungarian varieties. The author highlights the background of such plant protection problems and, based on the results obtained in 2013, summarises the range of active substances available to prevent the significant fruit drop.

Hide-and-seek game is over! Movento – a new insecticide to control sucking pests (x)
(Csaba Lovász)
Get to know the new insecticide of Bayer CropScience to control sucking pests.

Observations on the seasonal flight, spread and damage of walnut husk fly in 2013
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt et al.)
The authors begin with the results of their studies on the seasonal flight, spread and damage of walnut husk fly in 2013. They follow with presenting the damage and geographical distribution of grassfly Polyodaspis ruficornis. Finally, they compare the damages caused by these two pests and the options for their trapping.

Dormancy and the solution, independently of varietal susceptibility (x)
(Roland Szabó)
SumiAgro recommends a new product for apple growers to control powdery mildew.

About fireblight in the light of past years’ experiences. Interview with Imre Fülep
(Attila Kosztolányi)
We asked the horticultural professional Imre Fülep, managing his orchard in Nyírbátor and widely known by apple growers in the country, about fireblight, one of the most severe diseases of pome fruits, the options for its prevention and control. By this, we wish to support growers in preparing for the coming season, to give guidance how to avoid and mitigate damage, not only to the apple growers who experienced catastrophic incidence of this disease in 2012 and 2013.

Study on the seasonal flight of cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata Loew) in county Veszprém in 2013
(Máté Károlyi et al.)
The authors give an account of their results in 2013 of their studies carried out with the aim of getting the most accurate picture possible about the seasonal flight of eastern cherry fruit fly in county Veszprém. Indeed, for the proper timing of the control, we need to know exactly the seasonal flight pattern, the beginning of the mass appearance of the adults and the end of the flight.

Forecast-based control of spider mites
(Árpád Szabó)
This paper deals with the recurrent problem of pest management in apple orchards, the increased population density of common red spider mite and the options for its forecast-based control.

 “On-farm” research network of Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (ÖMKI) in the service of Hungarian ecological fruit growing
(Péter Kolláth, Orsolya Papp, Dóra Drexler)
The Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (ÖMKi), involving enthusiastic and interested Hungarian producers and some institutions interested in organic growing, launched on-farm trials in ecological production of vegetables, fruit and arable crops in 2012. They are working for solving two problems for the practice: reducing cherry fly infestation by applying entomopathogenic microfungal preparations and finding methods to prevent apple scab on non-resistant apple varieties. The authors give an account of the results achieved so far.

LOOKOUT

The operation of Italian producers’ sales organisations in fruit growing
(Tamás Szentpéteri)
One of the main secrets and essential conditions of the unbroken development and increasing market share of Italian fruit growing is that the organisation of sales has been developing together with the increasing orchard areas. In order to improve the efficacy of fruit trade, the Italian established producers’ sales organisations. This article tells the story of their founding and describes the background of their operation.

Walnut breeding and protection of origin in France
(Veronika Hajnal)
The author made a study-tour, organised by FruitVeB in August 2013, to France, where she could visit several walnut orchards and get acquainted with the latest results of applied research in walnut and the protection of origin. She gives an account of her experiences in this article.

The “English Apple Man”
(Dr. László Szalay)
Get to know the English Apple Man who spent his whole life with fruit growing and in particular, apple growing. After he had retired, he began to write his professional blog that brought him quite a big popularity and recognition.

Apricot is important for France
(Veronika Hajnal)
In France, apricot growing is concentrated in three major regions. Various public and private fruit-growing experimental stations are operated (IPS, SEFRA, CTIFL, SERFEL, CENTREX) in these districts, which are intensively engaged in solving problems in apricot growing, breeding, variety evaluation and crop management research. The author reports on her experience obtained on a study tour in the three production districts.

European Strawberry outlook
(Dr. Szilvia Kovács, Dr. László Szalay)
Growing strawberries in tunnel or eventually in glasshouse is more expensive and requires more discipline in crop management than in the open field, however, doing that pays the price. It turns out from the overview, which are the countries from the leading ones where strawberry production is dominated by traditional methods and which are the ones where the most up-to date techniques are applied.

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)
Interesting articles published in foreign technical journals are reviewed below this heading.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Recommending the book “Competitive apple growing”
(Dr. József Nyéki)
The authors of the book undertook to give a detailed, scientifically sound, but at the same time a practical overview of the situation and the prospects of training systems, variety use and the major elements of the crop management programme. They also outline possibilities of protecting against or preventing weather damages. All this is completed with economic considerations.

Educating pálinka (brandy) masters at Corvinus University
(Dr. Gyula Kasza)
As a result of a year’s preparation, the lecturers of Corvinus University, Food Science Department in 2012 developed and accredited the curriculum of engineer and consultant with a degree of in Brandy Master. This has become the first post-graduate education dedicated to pálinka that can be accomplished in addition to doing a job. The current article provides useful information about it.

Outstanding persons of our agricultural past. Aladár Porpáczy (1903-1965)
(Miklós Kurucz)
This month readers may get acquainted with the life and work of Aladár Porpáczy in the frame of our series presenting the great persons contributing to agricultural development in Hungary

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)