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Agroforum Extra 56.

 

 

The renewal of our technical language
(Dr. Gábor Zanathy)

GENERAL ISSUES

The aspects of supporting grapes and wine market under the Common Agricultural Policy scheme for 2014-2020
(Dr. Diána Sidlovits, Dr. Zoltán Kator)
The new regulation of the European Union concerning the Common Agricultural Policy developed for coherent organization of agricultural markets for the period 2014-2020, affects the subsidies for vine growing and wine making in various aspects. The range of items eligible for national support has enlarged in case of the measures for changing the cropping structure and promotion of wine, as well as for the innovative measures in winemaking. The authors wish to give a detailed description of these amendments.

The characteristics of vine growing in the Great Hungarian Plain
(Dr. Krisztina Németh)
In the past few years, the public has not considered vine growing or rather winemaking in the Great Hungarian Plain as quality production. However, to the contrary of wines produced in the hills, the advantage of that region is that the wine can be present in the Hungarian market in large volumes, taking decisive market share, even dominant from certain aspects. This is why this article studies the characteristics of vine growing and wine making in the Great Plain.

The signs of climatic effects on grape seeds
(Dr. Edit Hajdu)
Grapevine is a heath and light demanding plant. If light is not sufficient, the performance of vines is poor. If light is too much, vine plants suffer from sunburnt, get damaged, the assimilation of leaves is drastically decreased or stops and the fruits lose quality. Certain literature data refer to the effect of weather conditions on the development and the genetic structure of seeds. The article summarises the most important knowledge related to this topic.

The importance of UV-B spectrum of sunlight in grape physiology
(Dr. Péter Teszlák)
The paper provides interesting information on the relation of the ultraviolet spectrum of sunlight and the biology of grapevine. The author mentions several research works focusing on the response of certain grapevine varieties to UV-B irradiation. In such cases, irradiation is not harmful but rather beneficial. Actually, due to UV-irradiation, several molecules are produced in grapevine plants that can be useful for us by taking grapes and wine.

The value of using resistant grape varieties and the wines made thereof
(Zita Pálfi)
The author lets readers have an insight into the research conducted with the interspecific grape varieties Bianca and Nero in the Research Institute of Viticulture and Oenology in Eger. The main aim of the study was to obtain more knowledge about resistant grape varieties, to allow environmentally friendly and cost-efficient crop growing and to use at the same time, a winemaking technology for producing the best quality wine possible.

The anomalous acid composition of wines in years of drought
(Dr. Annamária Leskó, Dr. Miklós Kállay)
In years of drought, winemakers can experience acid content of musts and wines that are seemingly in contradiction with the theory. It can happen, e.g. that the titratable acidity of must is lower than that of the wine produced thereof. Furthermore, that observation may also raise questions that the acidity of a wine, should it be low for titratable acidity, can still be pleasant for tasting. The authors wish to give an explanation to such contradictions.

CROP MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME

The effect of different tillage techniques in a vineyard prone to erosion at Badacsony
(Dr. Péter Varga, Dr. János Májer, Csaba Németh)
The authors from the Research Institute of Viticulture and Oenology of the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre give an account of their experiment. They studied the effects of temporary and lasting cover of soil with plants or plant residues and of tillage techniques on parameters such as moisture content and nutrient supply of soils, as well as on crop quality and quantity.

The impact of soil covers with different plant species on soil moisture content
(Dr. György Zsigrai, Ádám Donkó)
The authors summarise the main conclusions of the experiments on the slopes Szemere and Kis-Garai of estates Gróf Degenfeld (Mezőzombor) and Tokaj Hétszőlő Zrt. (Tokaj), respectively carried out with cover plants between 14 June and 18 September 2013 in order to measure soil moisture content.

Plant chlorophyll reveals everything
(Dr. Ferenc Baglyas)
Copper-based plant protection products are widely used in ecological vine growing to control downy mildew. Copper is an essential element in plants for electron transport in photosynthesis and the activity of various enzymes (e.g. amino oxidase, cytochrome-c oxidase). At the same time, copper is a toxic heavy metal ion that, at an excess level, inhibits photosynthesis. This inhibitory effect can be very well detected by chlorophyll fluorescence, because chlorophyll fluorescence can be quickly measured by using Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry under the natural conditions of the plant. The paper lets us have an insight into the experiments carried out with grape cultivars Narancsízű and Pannon frankos.

Applying UAV technology in vineyards
(Péter Balling)
UAV technology is a widespread method in particular for armed forces. The acronym means Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Its applications in viticulture for frost protection, irrigation and plant protection are outlined in the article.

A simple and efficient method for timing vintage
(Dr. Zoltán Barócsi)
The timing of harvest is essential for reaching the appropriate quality and style of the wine. The author lets readers have an insight into an experiment carried out in 2010-2011 in order to develop tools for determining the optimum time of grape ripening and to put in place a technique in Eger wine region.

PLANT PROTECTION

The current situation of Flavescence doreé (FD) phytoplasma, ’Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis’ in Hungary
(Zsuzsanna Dancsházy, Sándor Szőnyegi)
The inspectors of the Directorate of Plant Protection and Soil Conservation of the Government Office of County Zala were the first to find grapevine flavescence doreé (FD) phytoplasma in Hungary. The authors present the contingency plan worked out to prevent the spread of this quarantine pathogen causing extremely severe economic losses. They also mention the action plan to develop, based on the contingency plan, for the management of a particular outbreak, and discuss the options of controlling the cicadellid vectors spreading the disease.

A new, big challenge vine-growers need to face: to overcome grapevine flavescence dorée in Hungary
(Terézia Dula)
The biggest challenge for vine growers and producers of grapevine propagating materials in the near future is to prevent the spread of grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma detected and identified in autumn 2013. This is why this article wishes to discuss the nature and magnitude of the problem newly emerged in plant health and the difficulty of solving it.

Great masters to fight the two most devastating fungal diseases of grapes (x)
(Béla Mészáros)
Get to know Kwizda Agro’s offer to control downy and powdery mildews in grapes.

Grapes and wines will repay the due care. Report
(dgy)
The article reports on the fourteenth conference on vine growing and winemaking organised by BASF for the 14th time this year. The company called the attention of operators in the grape and wine sector to the importance of the integrated approach.

Were grapevine diseases confused in 2013?
(Dr. István Füzi)
Thorough analyses are generally undertaken after years when significant economic damages are caused by diseases in vineyards. The lessons learnt during that time may help us to avoid similar problems in the future. No epidemics were encountered and no severe infection occurred in 2013. However, the past year was full of disease events bringing many interesting and important conclusions for professionals. The article wishes to draw the attention of readers to all these.

Old and new challenges in 2014 and beyond
(Terézia Dula)
A year has passed again in vineyards, it is time to make an overview and summarise the conclusions and to look forward as well. This article provides an excellent opportunity for all these with an analysis of the season of 2013, giving an account of grapevine growth, weather conditions and incidence of pests and diseases, together with the experience of controlling them. Furthermore, the author estimates the risks of epidemics likely to be encountered in 2014, based on the past year’s situation.

Belchim products for grapevine production are taken into consideration (x)
(Bodó Péter)
Growers’ experience with Belchim products in grapes are outlined here.

Shrivelling or peduncle necrosis?
(Attila Nagy, Dr. Gábor Zanathy)
There may be disorders involving the shrivelling of berries for which no forecasting technique has been developed and whose symptoms cannot be directly related to any pest or pathogen. The authors publish the key information on two such physiological disorders, i.e. peduncle necrosis known long ago and the shrivelling of bunches having caused more and more problems recently.

Need to live together with grapes (x)
(A. Gy.)
Growers’ experience in grapevine protection based on DuPont products is outlined here.

Severe diseases of Shiraz grapes in South Africa
(Roleen Carstens, Dr. Mária Kölber)
The authors wish to draw the attention of Hungarian vine-growers and winemakers already possessing ‘Shiraz’ vineyards or plant to plant such variety in the near future. The aim of article is to present the severe diseases ‘Shiraz’ in order to make Hungarian growers aware of the plant protection problem already causing serious problems abroad and to show the symptoms allowing the early recognition of symptoms if they happen to meet them in vineyards.

Healthy propagating material for safe grapevine growing
(Dr. Ernő Szegedi et al.)
The use of propagating material free from latent infection is of primary importance for the safety of grapevine growing. This is why we believe it is worth summarising the pests and pathogens spreading with the propagating materials of grapevine and how to produce material free from them.

Excellent berry protection! Dynali (x)
(Éva Nádudvari, Zoltán Varga)
Get acquainted with Syngenta’s new fungicide providing the full protection of bunches and the canopy in vineyards.

The most common grapevine pests and their forecasting
(Dr. Erzsébet Voigt, Dr. Miklós Tóth)
The authors describe the major grapevine pests caught by the various insect traps and outline the options of trapping. In addition, they draw the attention to the criteria of the appropriate application of the particular traps.

VINCARE® – the basis of efficient (wine) grape protection (x)
(Péter Dajka)
This is a combined product containing both contact and systemic active substances from Makhteshim Agan to give an appropriate control of grapevine downy mildew.

Let us protect or rather support them? Exploiting the self-protecting capacity of grapes
(Dr. Gábor Jakab, dr. Anna Csikászné Krizsics)
Induced resistance, the activation of the plant immune system and the prevention of infection may present a new perspective in plant protection. The article discusses its bases, prospects and constraints.

Luna Privilege offers you a privilege (x)
(Csaba Lovász)
This is a new and efficient fungicide for grapevine growers from Bayer CropScience.

GROWERS’ EXPERIENCES

Evaluating the season, 2013
(János Czink, Attila Csiha, Attila Hollósy, László Somogyi, László Vukovich)
As we did it in previous years, this year we have also asked the professionals working in different wine-growing regions about their experiences in crop growing and pest management in vineyards. We encouraged them to share their observations and conclusions with readers about the characteristics of the season of 2013, the occurrence of pathogens and pests and their control. They give an account of the expectations foreseen for year 2014, based on the examination of buds and the overwintering of pathogens and pests.

Comparing different techniques of green grafting at Sauska Tokaj winery
(Mónika Márkus, István Czemiczki)
Sauska winery in Tokaj has tried various green grafting techniques in the past few years. The Italian and Hungarian professionals used chip budding, grafting to crown, cleft grafting and grafting green parts to wood. The authors share their experience with readers in the article.

It is necessary to apply fertilizers but, the product counts! (x)
(Gábor Tóth)
Yara’s offer to vine growers for nutrient supply is below this heading.

REPORTS

The gift of wine. Awarding ceremony for “The wines of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 2014”
(Dr. László Bódis)
On the qualified contest of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), scientists and winemakers selected the seven wines among 147 ones of 54 wineries, that will be entitled to bear the distinguishing name of “The wine of HAS 2014”.

Café corner (x)
(Dr. László Bódis)
AGROcafé – is a café for professionals in agriculture

Principles and practical methods … Report
(Zsuzsanna Györök)
Vine growers following ecological management and others interested in it came together again in Lajosmizse on 14-15 January 2014. We report on the lectures and presentations delivered at the meeting.

OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Browsing in foreign journals
(Compiled and translated by: Eszter Polgár Balogh)…
Interesting articles published in foreign technical journals are reviewed below this heading.

Folklore in vine growing and winemaking
(Dr. Tivadar Petercsák)
The grape and wine culture of peasants in the Hungarian villages and meadow towns is characterised by age-old traditions, some elements of which, in many cases, can still be observed. In this article, the author undertakes to outline the traditional objects and the associated customs and beliefs related to vine growing, winemaking and wine consumption. He also presents how grapes and wine appear in objects of folk art and folklore traditions.

The beginning of vine growing in Tokaj wine region
(Dr. Zoltán Bihari)
Since what time has there been vine and wine culture in Tokaj region? This article wishes to give the answer to this question.

Philosophy and wine by Sándor Márai
(Miklós Kurucz)
The collection, far from complete, although a thematic one for wine, gives an insight into the thoughts and philosophy of Sándor Marai.

Written anno
(Dr. Péter Inczédy)

ANNEX

Product range for grapevine protection
(Compiled by: Péter Rózsahegyi, Ágnes Schmidt, Dr. László Varga)

Grapevine meeting to launch the season, addressing the challenges of the year. Report
(Attila Kosztolányi)
On 4 March 2014, the Fishing Park and Fisherman’s Tavern in Akasztó hosted the conference organised by Dow AgroSciences Hungary Kft. (DAS) together with Motrix 2000 Kft. and Malagrow Kft. to launch the season. The event focused on the dissemination of the most important knowledge to support vine growers affected by the recent challenge, namely grapevine flavescence dorée. In addition, a presentation was delivered on the black rot disease of grapes, as well as on the experience of an experiment carried out to study the effect of a wash-off spray in autumn against the sexual fruiting bodies of grapevine powdery mildew fungus.