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Agroforum Extra 6.

Talking with wheat (Dr. István Csíbor)

Imaginary talk with Hungarian Wheat about how he is at the end of winter, not too much before the EU accession.

The position of Hungarian wheat after the EU accession (Péter Kiss)

Hungary’s accession to the European Union will considerably influence agriculture, and within it cereal production. From 1 May 2004, the system currently in force in Hungary will be replaced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU. The article discusses the place of the Community in the global wheat production and estimates Hungary’s prospects in the wheat market after the accession.

Yearly changes in crop quality and quantity of winter wheat (Dr. Márton Jolánkai, Gergely Szöllősi, Dr. Zsolt Szentpétery)

The conditions at the production site highly influence the circumstances of every crop production activity, which is true also for wheat growing. Among the various factors, using a slightly imprecise term, “soil-climatic conditions” are a complex of such factors for agriculture, the effects of which cannot be controlled or only to a little extent. At the same time they are able to basically determine the objective of production, the crop species and the varieties to be grown, the cultural operation to be applied and the profitability of the activity.

The Crop Production Institute of the Szent István University conducted crop management studies between 1996 and 2002 with the aim of evaluating the effects of the particular years and within them the impact of the most important agronomic operations on wheat yields and certain crop quality identifiers.

The story of cereals with 2004 (x) (László Farády)

Bayer CropScience’s offer for the protection of cereals.

A property of increasing importance: drought resistance of wheat varieties (Dr. István Mihály Petróczi)

In rainy years, wheat growing is jeopardized by phytopathogenic fungi, while in dry seasons by water shortage itself. Time to time, growers consider one or the other problem more severe, though there is a big difference between them: efficient means, fungicides are available to feasibly control fungi, while lack of water and hot weather can hardly be influenced. Therefore, requirements for varieties are quite complex: they should provide high crop quality and quantity also under adverse climatic conditions. In connection with the wheat varieties bred in Szeged, Readers may get to know why is it good for growers if a variety is ”self-sacrificing”.

No crop safety without a wheat variety of good adaptability! (Dr. László Láng, Dr. Zoltán Bedő)

Hungary’s extreme climatic conditions try plants time to time. However, the phenomenon that various stress effects be present so severely in the same year as in 2003 occurs very rarely – so state the authors. Wheat growers have only limited control possibilities against winters colder than the average, exceptional drought and similarly adverse effects. The article is seeking the answer to the question: what can we do to mitigate the effects of winter cold and summer drought threatening yields. As towards the end of the season drought mainly reduces thousand-seed weight, breeding for drought resistance in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is mainly related to diameter and weight of seeds, as well as to the stability of such quality identifiers. Readers are informed also on the most important drought resistant and high-yielding varieties of the Agricultural Research Institute.

Thinking about the nutrient supply for winter wheat (Dr. Erik Czinege)

What is the reason for nutrient deficiency in plants on sites with good nutrient supply? What general principles are to follow in the nutrient supply of winter wheat? When and how to apply nitrogen fertilizers? Why do opinions differ in the application of phosphorous fertilizers in spring? How to time the application of foliar fertilizers? The article is seeking the answers to these questions.

Application technique by Kverneland Group (x)

A brief presentation of RAU sprayers.

How to apply top dressing to winter wheat? (x) (Dr. Erik Czinege, Dr. János Térmeg, Imre Szász)

A nutrient management programme based on Kemira fertilizers.

Using Fitohorm products in cereals (x) (Bödör Ferenc)

Results of trials carried out by Cereal Research Co., Szeged to study the effect of the foliar fertilizer “Fitohorm Standard Búza” (“Fitohorm Standard Wheat”) on the quality identifiers and macro-element content of five winter wheat varieties.

The effect of Fitohorm foliar fertilizers on wheat quality (x)

A brief information on the product and how to use it.

Leaf diseases of wheat in dry years (Mária Csősz)

Some years ago a comprehensive discussion took place about the importance of leaf diseases of winter wheat. This debate inspired the author to launch their research programme in connection with necrotroph pathogens (Drechslera tritici-repentis, Septoria tritici, Septoria nodorum, Bipolaris sorokiniana) in the Cereal Research Co., Szeged. The article presents the most important results for the practice obtained during four years. The paper lays species emphasis on the occurrence of necrothrophe pathogens in this period and the establishment of the epidemics, as well as on studying the resistance to biothrophe and necrothrophe pathogens and the yield response of winter wheat varieties after winter wheat as a preceding. The detailed results are shown also in a tabulated form.

Regent – a lasting protection of cereals against barley leaf beetle (x)

The fipronil insecticide of BASF is recommended for the control of barley leaf beetle.

2003 – the year of rusts (Péter Hertelendy)

The meteorological extremities of the past year, especially the hot and dry summer set in suddenly, highly contributed to the onset of certain rust diseases of various crops. The specialists of the National Institute of Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) recorded such rust injuries that they did not find in other years or only to a small extent. This was the case, in addition to other plants (e.g. sunflowers), also for cereals. The results of trials carried out under such extreme weather conditions with varieties for their response to plant diseases are not always useful for their evaluation, though each data obtained in such years contribute to the overall opinion about the particular varieties – says the author. The article gives an account of last year’s incidence of three rust diseases of winter wheat: yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis), leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) and stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici).

Seen, heard, read. Do new problems call for changing the strategies? (Translated by: Eszter Balikó)

The article is an abbreviated translation of an article published in the number 1/2004 of the journal Top agrar. It informs on the possibilities of applying the new protioconazole fungicides for use in cereals. It evaluates the biological efficacy and effect on crop yields of strobilurin fungicides. Based on the incidence data of cereal diseases recorded during the past few years, it briefly considers the situation expected for such diseases Germany.

Criteria for preparing the management programme of winter wheat diseases (Dr. György Kis, Zsolt Vendrei, Rozália Rátai-Vida)

In the short and up-dated version of the article published in the March 2002 number of Practical Agrofórum, the authors summarise the most important practical information on in-crop treatment regarding when, how many times and with how high volume should we spray to control diseases. The authors also deal with the issues of providing even spray coverage and the of mixing products. They present the use of fungicides registered for in-crop treatment of cereals in a tabulated form.

Seen, heard, read. Minister’s declaration about the future subsidies for machines (Dr. György Demes)

A summary of the lecture about the future subsidies to be granted for machinery, delivered by the minister of agriculture Dr. Imre Németh on the 23rd international fair of agriculture and agricultural machines AGRO+MASHEXPO held on 18-21 February 2004.

Berthoud –pumps and spray regulation (x) (János Berta)

Axiál Ltd. products for application techniques are recommended.

All-round inquiry about the in-crop protection of winter wheat to control diseases (Dr. Pál Békési)

The profitability of winter wheat production highly depends on how safely we grow this crop. On one hand the survival of abiotic stresses due to winter hardiness, frost resistance and drought tolerance are of special importance, and on the other, we need to protect winter wheat from the adverse effects of the living environment, above all from damages caused by diseases. From early spring, in-crop treatments with fungicides are of primary importance in preventing diseases. The author addressed the following questions in this topic to two wheat breeders, directors of two breeding institutes, a teacher-researcher of a Hungarian university and a development manager of a pesticide manufacturing and distributing multinational company: Which diseases of winter wheat are to be targeted with in-crop treatment among the various ones? How many times and when to apply fungicides in the crop? Which factors need to be taken into consideration for control and how to prioritize them? How can Hungary’s accession to the EU – the guaranteed price of 101 euros – influence the interest for growing the crop and the number of annual treatments?

The technical background of perfect sowing … (x)

The place of Vaderstad Rapid drills in the management programme of wheat is outlined.

„Supplying nutrients and protecting” – a programme for cereals (x) (István Tamás)

The products distributed by Hungarian Kwizda, Cosavet® DF, Aurora® 50 WG, Aurora Super® SG, Wuxal® Réz, Stabilan® SL, Eminent® 125 SL, Agriplant® and Wuxal® Boron are recommended for use.

Cost-efficient weed control in cereals: Arrat (x) (Dr. Imre Kovács)

BASF presents its herbicide, Arrat a new product for 2004.

Seen, heard, read. The results of the competition for product award of AGRO+MASHEXPO in 2004 (Dr. György Demes)

On the occasion of the international fair of agriculture and agricultural machines AGRO+MASHEXPO 2004, HUNGEXPO awarded grand prizes, special prizes and diplomas to the most outstanding technical innovations in machinery also this year.

Written anno … (Dr. Inczédy Péter)